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John Locke

Data de nascimento: 29. Agosto 1632
Data de falecimento: 28. Outubro 1704

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John Locke foi um filósofo inglês e ideólogo do liberalismo, sendo considerado o principal representante do empirismo britânico e um dos principais teóricos do contrato social .

Locke rejeitava a doutrina das ideias inatas e afirmava que todas as nossas ideias tinham origem no que era percebido pelos sentidos. A filosofia da mente de Locke é frequentemente citada como a origem das concepções modernas de identidade e do "Eu". O conceito de identidade pessoal, seus conceitos e questionamentos figuraram com destaque na obra de filósofos posteriores, como David Hume, Jean-Jacques Rousseau e Kant. Locke foi o primeiro a definir o "si mesmo" através de uma continuidade de consciência. Ele postulou que a mente era uma lousa em branco . Em oposição ao Cartesianismo, ele sustentou que nascemos sem ideias inatas, e que o conhecimento é determinado apenas pela experiência derivada da percepção sensorial .

Locke escreveu o Ensaio acerca do Entendimento Humano, onde desenvolve sua teoria sobre a origem e a natureza do conhecimento. Suas ideias ajudaram a derrubar o absolutismo na Inglaterra. Locke dizia que todos os homens, ao nascer, tinham direitos naturais - direito à vida, à liberdade e à propriedade. Para garantir esses direitos naturais, os homens haviam criado governos. Se esses governos, contudo, não respeitassem a vida, a liberdade e a propriedade, o povo tinha o direito de se revoltar contra eles. As pessoas podiam contestar um governo injusto e não eram obrigadas a aceitar suas decisões.

Dedicou-se também à filosofia política. No Primeiro Tratado sobre o Governo Civil, critica a tradição que afirmava o direito divino dos reis, declarando que a vida política é uma invenção humana, completamente independente das questões divinas. No Segundo Tratado sobre o Governo Civil, expõe sua teoria do Estado liberal e a propriedade privada.

Citações John Locke

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„(...) os papistas são como serpentes, nunca vai se conseguir com um tratamento gentil que abram mão de seu veneno" in "An Essay Concerning Toleration“

—  John Locke
1667), in Political Writings, (org.) David Wooton, Penguin Books, London-New York, 1993, p. 202 apud Losurdo, Dominico in Contra-História do Liberalismo, 2006, p. 37.

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„(...) todo homem livre da Carolina deve ter absoluto poder e autoridade sobre seus escravos negros seja qual for sua opinião e religião.“

—  John Locke
In The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina (1669) in Political Writings, (org.) David Wooton, Penguin Books, London-New York, p. 196 (art. CX) apud Losurdo, Dominico in Contra-História do Liberalismo, 2006, p. 15.

„The Indians, whom we call barbarous, observe much more decency and civility in their discourses and conversation“

—  John Locke
Context: The Indians, whom we call barbarous, observe much more decency and civility in their discourses and conversation, giving one another a fair silent hearing till they have quite done; and then answering them calmly, and without noise or passion. And if it be not so in this civiliz'd part of the world, we must impute it to a neglect in education, which has not yet reform'd this antient piece of barbarity amongst us. Sec. 145

„Reading furnishes the mind only with materials of knowledge; it is thinking that makes what we read ours.“

—  John Locke
Context: This is that which I think great readers are apt to be mistaken in; those who have read of everything, are thought to understand everything too; but it is not always so. Reading furnishes the mind only with materials of knowledge; it is thinking that makes what we read ours. We are of the ruminating kind, and it is not enough to cram ourselves with a great load of collections; unless we chew them over again, they will not give us strength and nourishment. As quoted in "Hand Book : Caution and Counsels" in The Common School Journal Vol. 5, No. 24 (15 December 1843) by Horace Mann, p. 371

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„That force is to be opposed to nothing, but to unjust and unlawful force.“

—  John Locke
Context: To this I answer: That force is to be opposed to nothing, but to unjust and unlawful force. Whoever makes any opposition in any other case, draws on himself a just condemnation, both from God and man… Second Treatise of Government, Ch. XVIII, sec. 204

„Curiosity should be as carefully cherish'd in children, as other appetites suppress'd.“

—  John Locke
Context: They should always be heard, and fairly and kindly answer'd, when they ask after any thing they would know, and desire to be informed about. Curiosity should be as carefully cherish'd in children, as other appetites suppress'd. Sec. 108

„Let a child but be ordered to whip his top at a certain time every day“

—  John Locke
Context: None of the things they learn, should ever be made a burthen to them, or impos's on them as a task. Whatever is so proposed, presently becomes irksome; the mind takes an aversion to it, though before it were a thing of delight or indifferency. Let a child but be ordered to whip his top at a certain time every day, whether he has or has not a mind to it; let this be but requir'd of him as a duty, wherein he must spend so many hours morning and afternoon, and see whether he will not soon be weary of any play at this rate. Is it not so with grown men? Sec. 73

„Bred a scholar he made his learning subservient only to the cause of truth.“

—  John Locke
Context: Stop Traveller! Near this place lieth John Locke. If you ask what kind of a man he was, he answers that he lived content with his own small fortune. Bred a scholar he made his learning subservient only to the cause of truth. This thou will learn from his writings, which will show thee everything else concerning him, with greater truth, than the suspect praises of an epitaph. His virtues, indeed, if he had any, were too little for him to propose as matter of praise to himself, or as an example to thee. Let his vices be buried together. As to an example of manners, if you seek that, you have it in the Gospels; of vices, to wish you have one nowhere; if mortality, certainly, (and may it profit thee), thou hast one here and everywhere. Epitaph, as translated from the Latin.

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