Frases de Hipócrates

Hipócrates photo
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Hipócrates

Data de nascimento: 460 a.C.
Data de falecimento: 370 a.C.

Hipócrates é considerado por muitos uma das figuras mais importantes da história da Medicina, frequentemente considerado "pai da medicina", apesar de ter desenvolvido tal ciência muito depois de Imhotep, do Egito antigo. É referido como uma das grandes figuras entre Sócrates, Aristóteles durante o florescimento intelectual ateniense . Hipócrates era um asclepíade, isto é, membro de uma família que durante várias gerações praticara os cuidados em saúde.

Nascido numa ilha grega, os dados sobre sua vida são incertos ou pouco confiáveis. Parece certo, contudo, que viajou pela Grécia e que esteve no Oriente Próximo.

Nas obras hipocráticas há uma série de descrições clínicas pelas quais se pode diagnosticar doenças como a malária, papeira, pneumonia [carece de fontes?] e tuberculose. Para o estudioso grego, muitas epidemias relacionavam-se com fatores climáticos, raciais, dietéticos e do meio onde as pessoas viviam. Muitos de seus comentários nos Aforismos são ainda hoje válidos. Seus escritos sobre anatomia contêm descrições claras tanto sobre instrumentos de dissecação quanto sobre procedimentos práticos.

Foi o líder incontestável da chamada "Escola de Cós". O que resta das suas obras testemunha a rejeição da superstição e das práticas mágicas da "saúde" primitiva, direcionando os conhecimentos em saúde no caminho científico.

Hipócrates fundamentou a sua prática na teoria dos quatro humores corporais que, consoante às quantidades relativas presentes no corpo, levariam a estados de equilíbrio ou de doença e dor . Esta teoria influenciou, por exemplo, Galeno, que desenvolveu a teoria dos humores e que dominou o conhecimento até o século XVIII.

Sua ética resume-se no famoso Juramento de Hipócrates. Porém, certos autores afirmam que o juramento teria sido elaborado numa época bastante posterior.

Obras

Aforismos
Hipócrates

„Os homens deveriam saber que é do cérebro, e de nenhum outro lugar, que vêm as alegrias, as delícias, o riso e as diversões, e tristezas, desânimos e lamentações.“

—  Hipócrates

And men ought to know that from nothing else but thence (from the brain ?) come joys, delights, laughter and sports, and sorrows, griefs, despondency, and lamentations.
The genuine works of Hippocrates: Volume 2 - Página 854 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=GIJIAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA854, Hippocrates - Printed for the Sydenham society, 1849
Atribuídas

„Os homens pensam que a epilepsia é divina meramente porque não a compreendem. Se eles denominassem divina qualquer coisa que não compreendem, não haveria fim para as coisas divinas.“

—  Hipócrates

Men think epilepsy is divine merely because they don't understand it, but if they called everything divine which they do not understand, why, there would be no end of divine things.
citado em "Epilepsy" - página 11 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=S6yQyHROt4gC&pg=PA11, Lichtenstein Creative Media, Lichtenstein Creative Media, ISBN 1932479155, 9781932479157
Atribuídas

„Aos doentes tenha por hábito duas coisas - ajudar, ou pelo menos não produzir danos.“

—  Hipócrates

As to diseases, make a habit of two things — to help, or at least to do no harm.
citado em "Hippocrates and the corpus Hippocraticum", William Henry Samuel Jones - G. Cumberlege, 1945
Atribuídas

„Tudo acontece conforme a natureza.“

—  Hipócrates

citado em Citações da Cultura Universal - Página 353, Alberto J. G. Villamarín, Editora AGE Ltda, 2002, ISBN 8574970891, 9788574970899
Atribuídas

„A vida é curta, a arte é longa, a oportunidade é fugaz, a experiência enganosa, o julgamento difícil.“

—  Hipócrates, Aforismos

Hipócrates, Aforismos, I,1 Apud SOUZA, A. Tavares, Curso de História da Medicina, Lisboa: Fund.Calouste Gulbenkian, 1981, p.56

„A cura está ligada ao tempo e, às vezes, também, às circunstâncias.“

—  Hipócrates

citado em "Hippocratic wisdom for him who wishes to pursue properly the science of medicine: a modern appreciation of ancient scientific achievement"‎ - Página 137, William Ferdinand Petersen, Hippocrates - 1946 - 263 páginas
Healing Is a matter of time, but Is sometimes also a matter of opportunity.
Atribuídas

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„O vinho é uma bebida excelente para o homem, tanto sadio como doente, desde que usado adequadamente, de maneira moderada e conforme o seu temperamento.“

—  Hipócrates

Hipócrates citado em Estresse Oxidativo E Antioxidantes - Página 93 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=-gKbwESgm20C&pg=PA93, Norma Posse Marroni, Editora da ULBRA, 2002, ISBN 8575280457, 9788575280454
Atribuídas

„Time is that wherein there is opportunity, and opportunity is that wherein there is no great time.“

—  Hippocrates

Precepts, Ch. 1, as translated by W. H. S. Jones (1923).
Contexto: Time is that wherein there is opportunity, and opportunity is that wherein there is no great time. Healing is a matter of time, but it is sometimes also a matter of opportunity. However, knowing this, one must attend to medical practice not primarily to plausible theories, but to experience combined with reason. For a theory is a composite memory of things apprehended with sense perception.

„As to diseases, make a habit of two things — to help, or at least, to do no harm.“

—  Hippocrates

Epidemics, Book I, Ch. 2, Full text online at Wikisource
Variant translation: The physician must be able to tell the antecedents, know the present, and foretell the future — must mediate these things, and have two special objects in view with regard to disease, namely, to do good or to do no harm.
Paraphrased variants:
Wherever a doctor cannot do good, he must be kept from doing harm.
Viking Book of Aphorisms : A Personal Selection (1988) by W. H. Auden and Louis Kronenberger, p. 213.
Original: (el) ἀσκεῖν περὶ τὰ νοσήματα δύο, ὠφελεῖν ἢ μὴ βλάπτειν

„Related to this is the surgery of wounds arising in military service, which concerns the extraction of missiles.“

—  Hippocrates

Hippocrates - The Physician 14, as translated by Paul Potter, Loeb Classical Library, Hippocrates Volume VIII.
Contexto: Related to this is the surgery of wounds arising in military service, which concerns the extraction of missiles. In city practice experience of these is but little, for very rarely even in a whole lifetime are there civil or military combats. In fact such things occur most frequently and continuously in armies abroad. Thus, the person intending to practice this kind of surgery must serve in the army, and accompany it on expeditions abroad; for in this way he would become experienced in this practice.

„To such a discovery and investigation what more suitable name could one give than that of Medicine? since it was discovered for the health of man, for his nourishment and safety“

—  Hippocrates

Ancient Medicine
Contexto: [N]ecessity itself made medicine to be sought out and discovered by men, since the same things when administered to the sick, which agreed with them when in good health, neither did nor do agree with them. But to go still further back, I hold that the diet and food which people in health now use would not have been discovered, provided it had suited with man to eat and drink in like manner as the ox, the horse, and all other animals... And, at first, I am of opinion that man used the same sort of food, and that the present articles of diet had been discovered and invented only after a long lapse of time.... [I]t is likely that the greater number, and those who had weaker constitutions, would all perish; whereas the stronger would hold out for a longer time, as even nowadays some, in consequence of using strong articles of food, get off with little trouble, but others with much pain and suffering. From this necessity it appears to me that they would search out the food befitting their nature, and thus discover that which we now use: and that from wheat, by macerating it, stripping it of its hull, grinding it all down, sifting, toasting, and baking it, they formed bread; and from barley they formed cake (maza), performing many operations in regard to it; they boiled, they roasted, they mixed, they diluted those things which are strong and of intense qualities with weaker things, fashioning them to the nature and powers of man, and considering that the stronger things Nature would not be able to manage if administered, and that from such things pains, diseases, and death would arise, but such as Nature could manage, that from them food, growth, and health, would arise. To such a discovery and investigation what more suitable name could one give than that of Medicine? since it was discovered for the health of man, for his nourishment and safety, as a substitute for that kind of diet by which pains, diseases, and deaths were occasioned.<!--pp. 162-164

„I have not thought that it stood in need of an empty hypothesis, like those subjects which are occult and dubious… as, for example, with regard to things above us“

—  Hippocrates

Ancient Medicine
Contexto: Whoever having undertaken to speak or write on Medicine, have first laid down for themselves some hypothesis to their argument, such as hot, or cold, or moist, or dry, or whatever else they choose, (thus reducing their subject within a narrow compass, and supposing only one or two original causes of diseases or of death among mankind,) are all clearly mistaken in much that they say; and this is the more reprehensible as relating to an art which all men avail themselves of on the most important occasions... For there are practitioners, some bad and some far otherwise, which, if there had been no such thing as Medicine, and if nothing had been investigated or found out in it... all would have been equally unskilled and ignorant of it, and everything concerning the sick would have been directed by chance. But now it is not so; for, as in all the other arts, those who practise them differ much from one another in dexterity and knowledge, so is it in like manner with Medicine. Wherefore I have not thought that it stood in need of an empty hypothesis, like those subjects which are occult and dubious... as, for example, with regard to things above us [meteorology, astronomy or astrology] and things below the earth [geology, Hades, ]; if any one should treat of these and undertake to declare how they are constituted, the reader or hearer could not find out, whether what is delivered be true or false; for there is nothing which can be referred to in order to discover the truth.<!--pp. 161-162

„I swear by Apollo the physician, and Aesculapius, and Health, and All-heal, and all the gods and goddesses, that, according to my ability and judgment, I will keep this Oath and this stipulation“

—  Hippocrates

to reckon him who taught me this Art equally dear to me as my parents, to share my substance with him, and relieve his necessities if required; to look upon his offspring in the same footing as my own brothers, and to teach them this art, if they shall wish to learn it, without fee or stipulation; and that by precept, lecture, and every other mode of instruction, I will impart a knowledge of the Art to my own sons, and those of my teachers, and to disciples bound by a stipulation and oath according to the law of medicine, but to none others.
Variant translation: I swear by Apollo Physician and Asclepius and Hygieia and Panaceia and all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will fulfil according to my ability and judgment this oath and this covenant ...
As translated in The Hippocratic Oath : Text, Translation, and Interpretation (1943) , by Ludwig Edelstein.

„Medicine is of all the Arts the most noble; but, owing to the ignorance of those who practice it, and of those who, inconsiderately, form a judgment of them, it is at present far behind all the other arts.“

—  Hippocrates

1.
The Law
Contexto: Medicine is of all the Arts the most noble; but, owing to the ignorance of those who practice it, and of those who, inconsiderately, form a judgment of them, it is at present far behind all the other arts. Their mistake appears to me to arise principally from this, that in the cities there is no punishment connected with the practice of medicine (and with it alone) except disgrace, and that does not hurt those who are familiar with it. Such persons are like the figures which are introduced in tragedies, for as they have the shape, and dress, and personal appearance of an actor, but are not actors, so also physicians are many in title but very few in reality.

„Whoever having undertaken to speak or write on Medicine, have first laid down for themselves some hypothesis to their argument, such as hot, or cold, or moist, or dry“

—  Hippocrates

Ancient Medicine
Contexto: Whoever having undertaken to speak or write on Medicine, have first laid down for themselves some hypothesis to their argument, such as hot, or cold, or moist, or dry, or whatever else they choose, (thus reducing their subject within a narrow compass, and supposing only one or two original causes of diseases or of death among mankind,) are all clearly mistaken in much that they say; and this is the more reprehensible as relating to an art which all men avail themselves of on the most important occasions... For there are practitioners, some bad and some far otherwise, which, if there had been no such thing as Medicine, and if nothing had been investigated or found out in it... all would have been equally unskilled and ignorant of it, and everything concerning the sick would have been directed by chance. But now it is not so; for, as in all the other arts, those who practise them differ much from one another in dexterity and knowledge, so is it in like manner with Medicine. Wherefore I have not thought that it stood in need of an empty hypothesis, like those subjects which are occult and dubious... as, for example, with regard to things above us [meteorology, astronomy or astrology] and things below the earth [geology, Hades, ]; if any one should treat of these and undertake to declare how they are constituted, the reader or hearer could not find out, whether what is delivered be true or false; for there is nothing which can be referred to in order to discover the truth.<!--pp. 161-162

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