Frases de Hipócrates
Data de nascimento: 460 a.C.
Data de falecimento: 370 a.C.
Hipócrates é considerado por muitos uma das figuras mais importantes da história da Medicina, frequentemente considerado "pai da medicina", apesar de ter desenvolvido tal ciência muito depois de Imhotep, do Egito antigo. É referido como uma das grandes figuras entre Sócrates, Aristóteles durante o florescimento intelectual ateniense . Hipócrates era um asclepíade, isto é, membro de uma família que durante várias gerações praticara os cuidados em saúde.
Nascido numa ilha grega, os dados sobre sua vida são incertos ou pouco confiáveis. Parece certo, contudo, que viajou pela Grécia e que esteve no Oriente Próximo.
Nas obras hipocráticas há uma série de descrições clínicas pelas quais se pode diagnosticar doenças como a malária, papeira, pneumonia [carece de fontes?] e tuberculose. Para o estudioso grego, muitas epidemias relacionavam-se com fatores climáticos, raciais, dietéticos e do meio onde as pessoas viviam. Muitos de seus comentários nos Aforismos são ainda hoje válidos. Seus escritos sobre anatomia contêm descrições claras tanto sobre instrumentos de dissecação quanto sobre procedimentos práticos.
Foi o líder incontestável da chamada "Escola de Cós". O que resta das suas obras testemunha a rejeição da superstição e das práticas mágicas da "saúde" primitiva, direcionando os conhecimentos em saúde no caminho científico.
Hipócrates fundamentou a sua prática na teoria dos quatro humores corporais que, consoante às quantidades relativas presentes no corpo, levariam a estados de equilíbrio ou de doença e dor . Esta teoria influenciou, por exemplo, Galeno, que desenvolveu a teoria dos humores e que dominou o conhecimento até o século XVIII.
Sua ética resume-se no famoso Juramento de Hipócrates. Porém, certos autores afirmam que o juramento teria sido elaborado numa época bastante posterior.
„Os homens pensam que a epilepsia é divina meramente porque não a compreendem. Se eles denominassem divina qualquer coisa que não compreendem, não haveria fim para as coisas divinas.“
Atribuídas, Men think epilepsy is divine merely because they don't understand it, but if they called everything divine which they do not understand, why, there would be no end of divine things. citado em "Epilepsy" - página 11 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=S6yQyHROt4gC&pg=PA11, Lichtenstein Creative Media, Lichtenstein Creative Media, ISBN 1932479155, 9781932479157
„Os homens deveriam saber que é do cérebro, e de nenhum outro lugar, que vêm as alegrias, as delícias, o riso e as diversões, e tristezas, desânimos e lamentações.“
Atribuídas, And men ought to know that from nothing else but thence (from the brain ?) come joys, delights, laughter and sports, and sorrows, griefs, despondency, and lamentations. The genuine works of Hippocrates: Volume 2 - Página 854 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=GIJIAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA854, Hippocrates - Printed for the Sydenham society, 1849
Atribuídas, As to diseases, make a habit of two things — to help, or at least to do no harm. citado em "Hippocrates and the corpus Hippocraticum", William Henry Samuel Jones - G. Cumberlege, 1945
Atribuídas, citado em "Hippocratic wisdom for him who wishes to pursue properly the science of medicine: a modern appreciation of ancient scientific achievement" - Página 137, William Ferdinand Petersen, Hippocrates - 1946 - 263 páginas Healing Is a matter of time, but Is sometimes also a matter of opportunity.
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„O vinho é uma bebida excelente para o homem, tanto sadio como doente, desde que usado adequadamente, de maneira moderada e conforme o seu temperamento.“
Atribuídas, Hipócrates citado em Estresse Oxidativo E Antioxidantes - Página 93 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=-gKbwESgm20C&pg=PA93, Norma Posse Marroni, Editora da ULBRA, 2002, ISBN 8575280457, 9788575280454
ἀσκεῖν περὶ τὰ νοσήματα δύο, ὠφελεῖν ἢ μὴ βλάπτειν Epidemics, Book I, Ch. 2, Full text online at Wikisource Variant translation: The physician must be able to tell the antecedents, know the present, and foretell the future — must mediate these things, and have two special objects in view with regard to disease, namely, to do good or to do no harm. Paraphrased variants: Wherever a doctor cannot do good, he must be kept from doing harm. Viking Book of Aphorisms : A Personal Selection (1988) by W. H. Auden and Louis Kronenberger, p. 213.
„I have not thought that it stood in need of an empty hypothesis, like those subjects which are occult and dubious… as, for example, with regard to things above us“
Ancient Medicine, Context: Whoever having undertaken to speak or write on Medicine, have first laid down for themselves some hypothesis to their argument, such as hot, or cold, or moist, or dry, or whatever else they choose, (thus reducing their subject within a narrow compass, and supposing only one or two original causes of diseases or of death among mankind,) are all clearly mistaken in much that they say; and this is the more reprehensible as relating to an art which all men avail themselves of on the most important occasions... For there are practitioners, some bad and some far otherwise, which, if there had been no such thing as Medicine, and if nothing had been investigated or found out in it... all would have been equally unskilled and ignorant of it, and everything concerning the sick would have been directed by chance. But now it is not so; for, as in all the other arts, those who practise them differ much from one another in dexterity and knowledge, so is it in like manner with Medicine. Wherefore I have not thought that it stood in need of an empty hypothesis, like those subjects which are occult and dubious... as, for example, with regard to things above us [meteorology, astronomy or astrology] and things below the earth [geology, Hades, ]; if any one should treat of these and undertake to declare how they are constituted, the reader or hearer could not find out, whether what is delivered be true or false; for there is nothing which can be referred to in order to discover the truth.<!--pp. 161-162
„To such a discovery and investigation what more suitable name could one give than that of Medicine? since it was discovered for the health of man, for his nourishment and safety“
Ancient Medicine, Context: [N]ecessity itself made medicine to be sought out and discovered by men, since the same things when administered to the sick, which agreed with them when in good health, neither did nor do agree with them. But to go still further back, I hold that the diet and food which people in health now use would not have been discovered, provided it had suited with man to eat and drink in like manner as the ox, the horse, and all other animals... And, at first, I am of opinion that man used the same sort of food, and that the present articles of diet had been discovered and invented only after a long lapse of time.... [I]t is likely that the greater number, and those who had weaker constitutions, would all perish; whereas the stronger would hold out for a longer time, as even nowadays some, in consequence of using strong articles of food, get off with little trouble, but others with much pain and suffering. From this necessity it appears to me that they would search out the food befitting their nature, and thus discover that which we now use: and that from wheat, by macerating it, stripping it of its hull, grinding it all down, sifting, toasting, and baking it, they formed bread; and from barley they formed cake (maza), performing many operations in regard to it; they boiled, they roasted, they mixed, they diluted those things which are strong and of intense qualities with weaker things, fashioning them to the nature and powers of man, and considering that the stronger things Nature would not be able to manage if administered, and that from such things pains, diseases, and death would arise, but such as Nature could manage, that from them food, growth, and health, would arise. To such a discovery and investigation what more suitable name could one give than that of Medicine? since it was discovered for the health of man, for his nourishment and safety, as a substitute for that kind of diet by which pains, diseases, and deaths were occasioned.<!--pp. 162-164
„Related to this is the surgery of wounds arising in military service, which concerns the extraction of missiles.“
Context: Related to this is the surgery of wounds arising in military service, which concerns the extraction of missiles. In city practice experience of these is but little, for very rarely even in a whole lifetime are there civil or military combats. In fact such things occur most frequently and continuously in armies abroad. Thus, the person intending to practice this kind of surgery must serve in the army, and accompany it on expeditions abroad; for in this way he would become experienced in this practice. Hippocrates - The Physician 14, as translated by Paul Potter, Loeb Classical Library, Hippocrates Volume VIII.