Frases de Ulysses S. Grant

Ulysses S. Grant photo
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Ulysses S. Grant

Data de nascimento: 27. Abril 1822
Data de falecimento: 23. Julho 1885

Ulysses S. Grant foi o 18.º Presidente dos Estados Unidos da América . Como General Comandante, Grant esteve ao lado do Presidente Abraham Lincoln liderando o Exército da União na vitória contra a Confederação durante a Guerra de Secessão. Implementou a chamada Reconstrução dos Estados Unidos, muitas vezes em desacordo com o sucessor de Lincoln, Andrew Johnson. Eleito por duas vezes presidente, Grant levou os Republicanos a apagar os vestígios do nacionalismo confederado e da escravatura, protegeu os cidadãos afro-americanos, e deu apoio à prosperidade económica por toda a nação. A sua presidência repetidamente alvo de críticas por tolerar a corrupção, e o seu segundo mandato como presidente levou o país a uma grave depressão económica.

Grant formou-se em 1843 na Academia Militar dos Estados Unidos em West Point, e prestou serviço na Guerra Mexicano-Americana, retirando-se em 1854. Durante a sua vida civil, passou por dificuldades financeiras. Quando a Guerra Civil começou em 1861, juntou-se, de novo, ao Exército dos Estados Unidos. Em 1862, Grant ficou responsável pelo Kentucky e grande parte do Tennessee, e levou a as forças da União à vitória na Batalha de Shiloh, ganhando a reputação de comandante agressivo. Durante o conflito, incorporou escravos afro-americanos no esforço da guerra. Em Julho de 1863, depois de várias batalhas, Grant derrotou os exércitos Confederados e cercou Vicksburg, dando o controlo do rio Mississípi à União ao dividir a Confederação em dois. Depois das suas vitórias durante a Campanha de Chattanooga, Lincoln promoveu-o a tenente-general, e a Comandante General dos Estados Unidos em Março de 1864. Grant ficou frente-a-frente com Robert E. Lee em várias batalhas sangrentas, cercando o exército deste na defesa de Richmond. Grant coordenou uma série de campanhas devastadoras em outros locais. Em Abril de 1865, Lee rendeu-se a Grant na Batalha de Appomattox, pondo termo à guerra. A maioria dos historiadores elogiam o génio militar de Grant, e as suas estratégias fazem parte dos livros sobre estratégia militar, mas alguns acham que ele obtinha as suas vitórias por via da força bruta e não de uma estratégia superior.

Despois da Guerra Civil, Grant liderou o a supervisão do exército da Reconstrução nos ex-estados Confederados. Eleito presidente em 1868, e reeleito em 1872, Grant conseguiu estabilizar o estado da nação durante os agitados anos da Reconstrução, processou o Ku Klux Klan e reforçou as leis dos direitos civis e de votos com o apoio do exército e do Departamento de Justiça dos Estados Unidos. Com a ajuda do exército, construiu o Partido Republicano no Sul, com base nos cidadãso votantes negros, migrantes do Norte e apoiantes brancos Sulistas . Depois da privação de direitos de alguns ex-Confederados, os republicanos obtiveram maiorias e os afro-americanos foram eleitos para o Congresso e altos gabinetes de estado. No seu segundo mandato, as coligações republicanas do Sul dividiram-se e foram derrotadas uma a uma à medida que os redeemers retomavam o controlo pela violência. A política de relações pacíficas com os índios implementada por Grant, resultou numa redução inicial da violência nas fronteiras, mas ficou marcada pela Grande Guerra com os Sioux em 1876, na qual George Custer e o seu regimento foram mortos na Batalha de Little Bighorn. Ao longo da sua presidência, Grant teve de enfrentar acusações de corrupção nos gabinetes executivos, incluindo investigações do Congresso a duas secretarias.

No que respeita à política externa, Grant aumentou as relações comerciais e a influência da América, ao mesmo tempo que se mantinha em paz com o mundo. A sua administração resolveu com sucesso as reivindicações do ''Alabama'' junto da Grã-Bretanha, pondo um ponto final nas tensões da guerra. Grant evitou a guerra com a Espanha depois do Caso Virginius, mas o Congresso rejeitou a sua tentativa de anexação da República Dominicana. Na política comercial, a administração de Grant implementou o padrão-ouro e procurou fortalecer o dólar. A sua resposta ao Pânico de 1873 trouxe algum alívio financeiro aos bancos de Nova Iorque, mas não conseguiu travar a depressão de cinco anos que fez aumentar o desemprego, baixar preços, baixar os lucros e as falências. Ao deixar a presidência em 1877, embarcou numa viagem à volta do mundo que durou dois anos.

Em 1880, Grant não conseguiu obter apoio dos republicanos para um terceiro mandato. Face a sérios reveses financeiros e a morrer de cancro da garganta, escreveu as suas memórias, obtendo uma boa recepção da crítica e boas vendas. A sua morte em 1885 deu origem a um sentimento de uma unidade nacional. As avaliações dos presidentes feitas pelos historiadores foram negativas até à década de 1980. Os académicos colocam a presidência de Grant abaixo da média de outros presidentes. Os seus críticos avaliam negativamente a sua gestão económica e o tratado de anexação da República Dominicana, enquanto os seus admiradores destacam a sua preocupação pelos [[Povos nativos dos Estados Unidos |Nativos Americanos]] e da defesa dos direitos de voto e civis.

Citações Ulysses S. Grant

„Apesar de um soldado por profissão, nunca senti qualquer tipo de gosto para a guerra, e eu nunca a defendi, exceto como meio de paz.“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

Although a soldier by profession, I have never felt any sort of fondness for war, and I have never advocated it, except as a means of peace.
Fonte: Discurso em Londres, como citado no Memorial da Vida Gen. Ulysses S. Grant (1889), editado por Stephen Merrill Allen, p. 95

„The framers of our Constitution firmly believed that a republican government could not endure without intelligence and education generally diffused among the people.“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

1870s, Message to the Senate and House of Representatives (1870)
Contexto: The framers of our Constitution firmly believed that a republican government could not endure without intelligence and education generally diffused among the people. The Father of his Country, in his Farewell Address, uses this language: Promote, then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened.

„The war is over — the rebels are our countrymen again.“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

Upon stopping his men from cheering after Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House (9 April 1865).
1860s
Contexto: The war is over — the rebels are our countrymen again. The war is over, the Rebels are our countrymen again, and the best sign of rejoicing after the victory will be to abstain from all demonstrations in the field.

„The cause of the great War of the Rebellion against the United States will have to be attributed to slavery.“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

Conclusion
1880s
Contexto: The cause of the great War of the Rebellion against the United States will have to be attributed to slavery. For some years before the war began it was a trite saying among some politicians that 'A state half slave and half free cannot exist.' All must become slave or all free, or the state will go down. I took no part myself in any such view of the case at the time, but since the war is over, reviewing the whole question, I have come to the conclusion that the saying is quite true.

„It occurred to me at once that Harris had been as much afraid of me as I had been of him. This was a view of the question I had never taken before; but it was one I never forgot afterwards. From that event to the close of the war, I never experienced trepidation upon confronting an enemy, though I always felt more or less anxiety. I never forgot that he had as much reason to fear my forces as I had his. The lesson was valuable.“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

1880s
Contexto: As we approached the brow of the hill from which it was expected we could see Harris' camp, and possibly find his men ready formed to meet us, my heart kept getting higher and higher until it felt to me as though it was in my throat. I would have given anything then to have been back in Illinois, but I had not the moral courage to halt and consider what to do; I kept right on. When we reached a point from which the valley below was in full view I halted. The place where Harris had been encamped a few days before was still there and the marks of a recent encampment were plainly visible, but the troops were gone. My heart resumed its place. It occurred to me at once that Harris had been as much afraid of me as I had been of him. This was a view of the question I had never taken before; but it was one I never forgot afterwards. From that event to the close of the war, I never experienced trepidation upon confronting an enemy, though I always felt more or less anxiety. I never forgot that he had as much reason to fear my forces as I had his. The lesson was valuable.

Account of his effort as Colonel of the 21st Infantry of Illinois, to engage Confederate Colonel Thomas Harris in northern Missouri, Ch. 18.

„In some places colored laborers were compelled to vote according to the wishes of their employers, under threats of discharge if they acted otherwise; and there are too many instances in which, when these threats were disregarded, they were remorselessly executed by those who made them.“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

I understand that the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution was made to prevent this and a like state of things, and the act of May 31, 1870, with amendments, was passed to enforce its provisions, the object of both being to guarantee to all citizens the right to vote and to protect them in the free enjoyment of that right.
1870s, Sixth State of the Union Address (1874)

„General Burnside wanted to put his colored division in front, and I believe if he had done so it would have been a success.“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

Still I agreed with General Meade as to his objections to that plan. General Meade said that if we put the colored troops in front, we had only one division, and it should prove a failure, it would then be said and very properly, that we were shoving these people ahead to get killed because we did not care anything about them. But that could not be said if we put white troops in front.
To the Committee on the Conduct of the War, as quoted in Battles and Leaders of the Civil War http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/books/battles/index.cfm (1884-1888), edited by Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence C. Buel, New York: Century Co., Volume 4, p. 548.

„The United States should always be prepared to put down such demonstrations promptly and with severe consequences for the guilty“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

1870s, Letter to Daniel Ammen (1877)
Contexto: For the last eight weeks I have seen but few American papers, and am consequently behind in home news. The foreign papers, however, have been full of the great railroad strike, and no doubt exaggerated it, bad as it was. The United States should always be prepared to put down such demonstrations promptly and with severe consequences for the guilty. I hope good may come out of this, in pointing out the necessity for having the proper remedy at hand in case of need. 'An ounce of preservation is worth a pound of cure'.

„If it is necessary that slavery should fall that the Republic may continue its existence, let slavery go“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

Letter to his father (27 November 1861)
1860s
Contexto: My inclination is to whip the rebellion into submission, preserving all Constitutional rights. If it cannot be whipped any other way than through a war against slavery, let it come to to that legitimately. If it is necessary that slavery should fall that the Republic may continue its existence, let slavery go.

„That is, by arming the negro we have added a powerful ally. They will make good soldiers and taking them from the enemy weaken him in the same proportion they strengthen us.“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

1860s, Letter to Abraham Lincoln (1863)
Contexto: That is, by arming the negro we have added a powerful ally. They will make good soldiers and taking them from the enemy weaken him in the same proportion they strengthen us. I am therefore most decidedly in favor of pushing this policy to the enlistment of a force sufficient to hold all the South falling into our hands and to aid in capturing more.

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„The effects of the late civil strife have been to free the slave and make him a citizen. Yet he is not possessed of the civil rights which citizenship should carry with it. This is wrong, and should be corrected.“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

1870s, Second Inaugural Address (1873)
Contexto: The effects of the late civil strife have been to free the slave and make him a citizen. Yet he is not possessed of the civil rights which citizenship should carry with it. This is wrong, and should be corrected. To this correction I stand committed, so far as Executive influence can avail.

„They saw their power waning, and this led them to encroach upon the prerogatives and independence of the Northern States by enacting such laws as the Fugitive Slave Law.“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

1880s
Contexto: Slavery was an institution that required unusual guarantees for its security wherever it existed; and in a country like ours where the larger portion of it was free territory inhabited by an intelligent and well-to-do population, the people would naturally have but little sympathy with demands upon them for its protection. Hence the people of the South were dependent upon keeping control of the general government to secure the perpetuation of their favorite institution. They were enabled to maintain this control long after the States where slavery existed had ceased to have the controlling power, through the assistance they received from odd men here and there throughout the Northern States. They saw their power waning, and this led them to encroach upon the prerogatives and independence of the Northern States by enacting such laws as the Fugitive Slave Law. By this law every Northern man was obliged, when properly summoned, to turn out and help apprehend the runaway slave of a Southern man. Northern marshals became slave-catchers, and Northern courts had to contribute to the support and protection of the institution.

„The laws and regulations for the apparent abolition of slavery in Cuba and Porto Rico leave most of the laborers in bondage, with no hope of release until their lives become a burden to their employers.“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

1870s, Third State of the Union Address (1871)
Contexto: It is a subject for regret that the reforms in this direction which were voluntarily promised by the statesmen of Spain have not been carried out in its West India colonies. The laws and regulations for the apparent abolition of slavery in Cuba and Porto Rico leave most of the laborers in bondage, with no hope of release until their lives become a burden to their employers.

„As the United States is the freest of all nations, so, too, its people sympathize with all people struggling for liberty and self-government; but while so sympathizing it is due to our honor that we should abstain from enforcing our views upon unwilling nations and from taking an interested part, without invitation“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

1860s, First State of the Union Address (1869)
Contexto: As the United States is the freest of all nations, so, too, its people sympathize with all people struggling for liberty and self-government; but while so sympathizing it is due to our honor that we should abstain from enforcing our views upon unwilling nations and from taking an interested part, without invitation, in the quarrels between different nations or between governments and their subjects. Our course should always be in conformity with strict justice and law, international and local.

„Military rule would have been just to all, to the negro who wanted freedom“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

In China, p. 362.
1870s
Contexto: Looking back over the whole policy of reconstruction, it seems to me that the wisest thing would have been to have continued for some time the military rule. Sensible Southern men see now that there was no government so frugal, so just, and fair as what they had under our generals. That would have enabled the Southern people to pull themselves together and repair material losses. As to depriving them, even for a time, of suffrage, that was our right as a conqueror, and it was a mild penalty for the stupendous crime of treason. Military rule would have been just to all, to the negro who wanted freedom, the white man who wanted protection, the northern man who wanted Union. As state after state showed a willingness to come into the Union, not on their own terms but upon ours, I would have admitted them. This would have made universal suffrage unnecessary, and I think a mistake was made about suffrage. It was unjust to the negro to throw upon him the responsibilities of citizenship, and expect him to be on even terms with his white neighbor. It was unjust to the north. In giving the south negro suffrage, we have given the old slave-holders forty votes in the electoral college. They keep those votes, but disfranchise the negroes. That is one of the gravest mistakes in the policy of reconstruction. It looks like a political triumph for the south, but it is not. The southern people have nothing to dread more than the political triumph of the men who led them into secession. That triumph was fatal to them in 1860. It would be no less now. The trouble about military rule in the south was that our people did not like it. It was not in accordance with our institutions. I am clear now that it would have been better for the north to have postponed suffrage, reconstruction, state governments, for ten years, and held the south in a territorial condition. It was due to the north that the men who had made war upon us should be powerless in a political sense forever. It would have avoided the scandals of the state governments, saved money, and enabled the northern merchants, farmers, and laboring men to reorganize society in the south. But we made our scheme, and must do what we can with it. Suffrage once given can never be taken away, and all that remains for us now is to make good that gift by protecting those who have received it.

„I have no prejudice against sect or race, but want each individual to be judged by his own merit.“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

To Isaac N. Morris (1868), as quoted in The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant: July 1, 1868–October 31, 1869 https://books.google.com/books?id=JXn2Bq8KpDEC&pg=PA37&dq=%22I+have+no+prejudice+against+sect+or+race,+but+want+each+individual+to+be+judged+by+his+own+merit.%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=eucJVYHXK4SxggSXj4S4BQ&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false, by Ulysses S. Grant, p. 37. Also quoted in Grant http://books.google.com/books?id=TssAXSdPTi4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=GrantJean+E.+Smith&hl=en&sa=X&ei=MVrWU7qCI47lsATyroKADg&ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=prejudice%20against%20sect&f=false (2001), by Jean Edward Smith, pp. 459–460.
1860s, Letter to Isaac N. Morris (1868)
Contexto: Give Mister Moses assurances that I have no prejudice against sect or race, but want each individual to be judged by his own merit. Order No. 11 does not sustain this statement, I amidt, but then I do not sustain that order. It never would have been issued if it had not been telegraphed the moment penned, without one moment's reflection.

„The present difficulty, in bringing all parts of the United States to a happy unity and love of country grows out of the prejudice to color. The prejudice is a senseless one, but it exists.“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

Memorandum: Reasons why Santo Domingo should be annexed to the United States http://books.google.com/books?id=h2ETxC83sdsC&pg=PA74&lpg=PA74&dq=%22and+he+would+soon+receive+such+recognition+as+to+induce+him+to+stay%22&source=bl&ots=0bCUbNud-b&sig=SUGBB2pV8Ob_jR_KTJvQ2kenxKM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=B-9kU7-8DtXesAT_4YGQBA&ved=0CDoQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=%22and%20he%20would%20soon%20receive%20such%20recognition%20as%20to%20induce%20him%20to%20stay%22&f=false (1869-1870?).
1860s
Contexto: Caste has no foothold in Santo Domingo. It is capable of supporting the entire colored population of the United States, should it choose to emigrate. The present difficulty, in bringing all parts of the United States to a happy unity and love of country grows out of the prejudice to color. The prejudice is a senseless one, but it exists. The colored man cannot be spared until his place is supplied, but with a refuge like San Domingo his worth here would soon be discovered, and he would soon receive such recognition to induce him to stay; or if Providence designed that the two races should not live to-gether he would find his home in the Antilles.

„I do not sustain that order. It never would have been issued if it had not been telegraphed the moment penned, without one moment's reflection“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

To Isaac N. Morris (1868), as quoted in The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant: July 1, 1868–October 31, 1869 https://books.google.com/books?id=JXn2Bq8KpDEC&pg=PA37&dq=%22I+have+no+prejudice+against+sect+or+race,+but+want+each+individual+to+be+judged+by+his+own+merit.%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=eucJVYHXK4SxggSXj4S4BQ&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false, by Ulysses S. Grant, p. 37. Also quoted in Grant http://books.google.com/books?id=TssAXSdPTi4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=GrantJean+E.+Smith&hl=en&sa=X&ei=MVrWU7qCI47lsATyroKADg&ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=prejudice%20against%20sect&f=false (2001), by Jean Edward Smith, pp. 459–460.
1860s, Letter to Isaac N. Morris (1868)
Contexto: Give Mister Moses assurances that I have no prejudice against sect or race, but want each individual to be judged by his own merit. Order No. 11 does not sustain this statement, I amidt, but then I do not sustain that order. It never would have been issued if it had not been telegraphed the moment penned, without one moment's reflection.

„Oh, I am heartily tired of hearing about what Lee is going to do.“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

As quoted in "Campaigning with Grant" http://books.google.com/books?id=Y7TPAAAAMAAJ&q="Oh+I+am+heartily+tired+of+hearing+about+what+Lee+is+going+to+do+Some+of+you+always+seem+to+think+he+is+suddenly+going+to+turn+a+double+somersault+and+land+in+our+rear+and+on+both+of+our+flanks+at+the+same+time+Go+back+to+your+command+and+try+to+think+what+we+are+going+to+do+ourselves+instead+of+what+Lee+is+going+to+do"&pg=PA230#v=onepage (December 1896), by General Horace Porter, The Century Magazine.
1860s
Contexto: Oh, I am heartily tired of hearing about what Lee is going to do. Some of you always seem to think he is suddenly going to turn a double somersault, and land in our rear and on both of our flanks at the same time. Go back to your command, and try to think what we are going to do ourselves, instead of what Lee is going to do.

„I suggest for your earnest consideration, and most earnestly recommend it, that a constitutional amendment be submitted to the legislatures of the several States for ratification, making it the duty of each of the several States to establish and forever maintain free public schools adequate to the education of all the children in the rudimentary branches within their respective limits, irrespective of sex, color, birthplace, or religions“

—  Ulysses S. Grant

1870s, Seventh State of the Union Address (1875)
Contexto: As the primary step, therefore, to our advancement in all that has marked our progress in the past century, I suggest for your earnest consideration, and most earnestly recommend it, that a constitutional amendment be submitted to the legislatures of the several States for ratification, making it the duty of each of the several States to establish and forever maintain free public schools adequate to the education of all the children in the rudimentary branches within their respective limits, irrespective of sex, color, birthplace, or religions; forbidding the teaching in said schools of religious, atheistic, or pagan tenets; and prohibiting the granting of any school funds or school taxes, or any part thereof, either by legislative, municipal, or other authority, for the benefit or in aid, directly or indirectly, of any religious sect or denomination, or in aid or for the benefit of any other object of any nature or kind whatever.

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