Frases de Ulysses S. Grant

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Ulysses S. Grant

Data de nascimento: 27. Abril 1822
Data de falecimento: 23. Julho 1885

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Ulysses S. Grant foi o 18.º Presidente dos Estados Unidos da América . Como General Comandante, Grant esteve ao lado do Presidente Abraham Lincoln liderando o Exército da União na vitória contra a Confederação durante a Guerra de Secessão. Implementou a chamada Reconstrução dos Estados Unidos, muitas vezes em desacordo com o sucessor de Lincoln, Andrew Johnson. Eleito por duas vezes presidente, Grant levou os Republicanos a apagar os vestígios do nacionalismo confederado e da escravatura, protegeu os cidadãos afro-americanos, e deu apoio à prosperidade económica por toda a nação. A sua presidência repetidamente alvo de críticas por tolerar a corrupção, e o seu segundo mandato como presidente levou o país a uma grave depressão económica.

Grant formou-se em 1843 na Academia Militar dos Estados Unidos em West Point, e prestou serviço na Guerra Mexicano-Americana, retirando-se em 1854. Durante a sua vida civil, passou por dificuldades financeiras. Quando a Guerra Civil começou em 1861, juntou-se, de novo, ao Exército dos Estados Unidos. Em 1862, Grant ficou responsável pelo Kentucky e grande parte do Tennessee, e levou a as forças da União à vitória na Batalha de Shiloh, ganhando a reputação de comandante agressivo. Durante o conflito, incorporou escravos afro-americanos no esforço da guerra. Em Julho de 1863, depois de várias batalhas, Grant derrotou os exércitos Confederados e cercou Vicksburg, dando o controlo do rio Mississípi à União ao dividir a Confederação em dois. Depois das suas vitórias durante a Campanha de Chattanooga, Lincoln promoveu-o a tenente-general, e a Comandante General dos Estados Unidos em Março de 1864. Grant ficou frente-a-frente com Robert E. Lee em várias batalhas sangrentas, cercando o exército deste na defesa de Richmond. Grant coordenou uma série de campanhas devastadoras em outros locais. Em Abril de 1865, Lee rendeu-se a Grant na Batalha de Appomattox, pondo termo à guerra. A maioria dos historiadores elogiam o génio militar de Grant, e as suas estratégias fazem parte dos livros sobre estratégia militar, mas alguns acham que ele obtinha as suas vitórias por via da força bruta e não de uma estratégia superior.

Despois da Guerra Civil, Grant liderou o a supervisão do exército da Reconstrução nos ex-estados Confederados. Eleito presidente em 1868, e reeleito em 1872, Grant conseguiu estabilizar o estado da nação durante os agitados anos da Reconstrução, processou o Ku Klux Klan e reforçou as leis dos direitos civis e de votos com o apoio do exército e do Departamento de Justiça dos Estados Unidos. Com a ajuda do exército, construiu o Partido Republicano no Sul, com base nos cidadãso votantes negros, migrantes do Norte e apoiantes brancos Sulistas . Depois da privação de direitos de alguns ex-Confederados, os republicanos obtiveram maiorias e os afro-americanos foram eleitos para o Congresso e altos gabinetes de estado. No seu segundo mandato, as coligações republicanas do Sul dividiram-se e foram derrotadas uma a uma à medida que os redeemers retomavam o controlo pela violência. A política de relações pacíficas com os índios implementada por Grant, resultou numa redução inicial da violência nas fronteiras, mas ficou marcada pela Grande Guerra com os Sioux em 1876, na qual George Custer e o seu regimento foram mortos na Batalha de Little Bighorn. Ao longo da sua presidência, Grant teve de enfrentar acusações de corrupção nos gabinetes executivos, incluindo investigações do Congresso a duas secretarias.

No que respeita à política externa, Grant aumentou as relações comerciais e a influência da América, ao mesmo tempo que se mantinha em paz com o mundo. A sua administração resolveu com sucesso as reivindicações do ''Alabama'' junto da Grã-Bretanha, pondo um ponto final nas tensões da guerra. Grant evitou a guerra com a Espanha depois do Caso Virginius, mas o Congresso rejeitou a sua tentativa de anexação da República Dominicana. Na política comercial, a administração de Grant implementou o padrão-ouro e procurou fortalecer o dólar. A sua resposta ao Pânico de 1873 trouxe algum alívio financeiro aos bancos de Nova Iorque, mas não conseguiu travar a depressão de cinco anos que fez aumentar o desemprego, baixar preços, baixar os lucros e as falências. Ao deixar a presidência em 1877, embarcou numa viagem à volta do mundo que durou dois anos.

Em 1880, Grant não conseguiu obter apoio dos republicanos para um terceiro mandato. Face a sérios reveses financeiros e a morrer de cancro da garganta, escreveu as suas memórias, obtendo uma boa recepção da crítica e boas vendas. A sua morte em 1885 deu origem a um sentimento de uma unidade nacional. As avaliações dos presidentes feitas pelos historiadores foram negativas até à década de 1980. Os académicos colocam a presidência de Grant abaixo da média de outros presidentes. Os seus críticos avaliam negativamente a sua gestão económica e o tratado de anexação da República Dominicana, enquanto os seus admiradores destacam a sua preocupação pelos [[Povos nativos dos Estados Unidos |Nativos Americanos]] e da defesa dos direitos de voto e civis.

Citações Ulysses S. Grant

„I took no part myself in any such view of the case at the time, but since the war is over, reviewing the whole question, I have come to the conclusion that the saying is quite true.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: The cause of the great War of the Rebellion against the United States will have to be attributed to slavery. For some years before the war began it was a trite saying among some politicians that 'A state half slave and half free cannot exist.' All must become slave or all free, or the state will go down. I took no part myself in any such view of the case at the time, but since the war is over, reviewing the whole question, I have come to the conclusion that the saying is quite true. Conclusion

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„I can assure you that these colored troops are regularly mustered into the service of the United States“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: I feel no inclination to retaliate for the offences of irresponsible persons; but if it is the policy of any General intrusted with the command of troops to show no quarter, or to punish with death prisoners taken in battle, I will accept the issue. It may be you propose a different line of policy towards black troops, and officers commanding them, to that practiced towards white troops. So, I can assure you that these colored troops are regularly mustered into the service of the United States. The Government, and all officers under the Government, are bound to give the same protection to these troops that they do to any other troops. Regarding Confederate executions of captured Union prisoners of war at Milliken's Bend by hanging Letter to Richard Taylor at Vicksburg (1863) https://archive.org/stream/wordsofourheroul00gran/wordsofourheroul00gran_djvu.txt

„Keep the church and the state forever separate.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: Encourage free schools, and resolve that not one dollar of money shall be appropriated to the support of any sectarian school. Resolve that neither the state nor nation, or both combined, shall support institutions of learning other than those sufficient to afford every child growing up in the land the opportunity of a good common school education, unmixed with sectarian, Pagan, or Atheistical tenets. Leave the matter of religion to the family altar, the church, and the private school, supported entirely by private contributions. Keep the church and the state forever separate. With these safeguards, I believe the battles which created the Army of the Tennessee will not have been fought in vain.

„There was no time during the rebellion when I did not think, and often say, that the South was more to be benefited by its defeat than the North. The latter had the people, the institutions, and the territory to make a great and prosperous nation. The former was burdened with an institution abhorrent to all civilized people not brought up under it, and one which degraded labor, kept it in ignorance, and enervated the governing class.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: There was no time during the rebellion when I did not think, and often say, that the South was more to be benefited by its defeat than the North. The latter had the people, the institutions, and the territory to make a great and prosperous nation. The former was burdened with an institution abhorrent to all civilized people not brought up under it, and one which degraded labor, kept it in ignorance, and enervated the governing class. With the outside world at war with this institution, they could not have extended their territory. The labor of the country was not skilled, nor allowed to become so. The whites could not toil without becoming degraded, and those who did were denominated 'poor white trash.' The system of labor would have soon exhausted the soil and left the people poor. The non-slaveholders would have left the country, and the small slaveholder must have sold out to his more fortunate neighbor. Soon the slaves would have outnumbered the masters, and, not being in sympathy with them, would have risen in their might and exterminated them. The war was expensive to the South as well as to the North, both in blood and treasure, but it was worth all it cost. Ch. 41.

„I do not pretend to sustain the order.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: I do not pretend to sustain the order. At the time of its publication I was insensed by a reprimand recieved from Washington for permitting acts which the Jews, within my lines, were engaged in.

„I propose to receive the surrender of the Army of N. Va. on the following terms“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: I propose to receive the surrender of the Army of N. Va. on the following terms, to wit: Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in duplicate. One copy to be given to an officer designated by me, the other to be retained by such officer or officers as you may designate. The officers to give their individual paroles not to take up arms against the Government of the United States until properly exchanged, and each company or regimental commander sign a like parole for the men of their commands. The arms, artillery and public property to be parked and stacked, and turned over to the officer appointed by me to receive them. This will not embrace the side-arms of the officers, nor their private horses or baggage. This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to their homes, not to be disturbed by United States authority so long as they observe their paroles and the laws in force where they may reside. Terms of surrender, given to General Robert E. Lee after the Battle of Appomattox Courthouse (9 April 1865).

„There had to be an end of slavery.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: There had to be an end of slavery. Then we were fighting an enemy with whom we could not make a peace. We had to destroy him. No convention, no treaty was possible. Only destruction. To Otto von Bismarck in June 1878, as quoted in Around the World with General Grant http://www.granthomepage.com/grantslavery.htm (1879), by John Russell Young, The American News Company, New York, vol. 7, p. 416.

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„That is, by arming the negro we have added a powerful ally. They will make good soldiers and taking them from the enemy weaken him in the same proportion they strengthen us.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: That is, by arming the negro we have added a powerful ally. They will make good soldiers and taking them from the enemy weaken him in the same proportion they strengthen us. I am therefore most decidedly in favor of pushing this policy to the enlistment of a force sufficient to hold all the South falling into our hands and to aid in capturing more.

„I repeat that the adoption of the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution completes the greatest civil change and constitutes the most important event that has occurred since the nation came into life. The change will be beneficial in proportion to the heed that is given to the urgent recommendations of Washington.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: In his first annual message to Congress the same views are forcibly presented, and are again urged in his eighth message. I repeat that the adoption of the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution completes the greatest civil change and constitutes the most important event that has occurred since the nation came into life. The change will be beneficial in proportion to the heed that is given to the urgent recommendations of Washington. If these recommendations were important then, with a population of but a few millions, how much more important now, with a population of 40,000,000, and increasing in a rapid ratio.

„I feel that we are on the eve of a new era, when there is to be great harmony“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: I feel that we are on the eve of a new era, when there is to be great harmony between the Federal and Confederate. I cannot stay to be a living witness to the correctness of this prophecy; but I feel it within me that it is to be so. The universally kind feeling expressed for me at a time when it was supposed that each day would prove my last, seemed to me the beginning of the answer to "Let us have peace." The expression of these kindly feelings were not restricted to a section of the country, nor to a division of the people. They came from individual citizens of all nationalities; from all denominations — the Protestant, the Catholic, and the Jew; and from the various societies of the land — scientific, educational, religious or otherwise. Politics did not enter into the matter at all. I am not egotist enough to suppose all this significance should be given because I was the object of it. But the war between the States was a very bloody and a very costly war. One side or the other had to yield principles they deemed dearer than life before it could be brought to an end. I commanded the whole of the mighty host engaged on the victorious side. I was, no matter whether deservedly so or not, a representative of that side of the controversy. It is a significant and gratifying fact that Confederates should have joined heartily in this spontaneous move. I hope the good feeling inaugurated may continue to the end. Conclusion

„I suggest for your earnest consideration, and most earnestly recommend it, that a constitutional amendment be submitted to the legislatures of the several States for ratification, making it the duty of each of the several States to establish and forever maintain free public schools adequate to the education of all the children in the rudimentary branches within their respective limits, irrespective of sex, color, birthplace, or religions“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: As the primary step, therefore, to our advancement in all that has marked our progress in the past century, I suggest for your earnest consideration, and most earnestly recommend it, that a constitutional amendment be submitted to the legislatures of the several States for ratification, making it the duty of each of the several States to establish and forever maintain free public schools adequate to the education of all the children in the rudimentary branches within their respective limits, irrespective of sex, color, birthplace, or religions; forbidding the teaching in said schools of religious, atheistic, or pagan tenets; and prohibiting the granting of any school funds or school taxes, or any part thereof, either by legislative, municipal, or other authority, for the benefit or in aid, directly or indirectly, of any religious sect or denomination, or in aid or for the benefit of any other object of any nature or kind whatever.

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„Our conversation grew so pleasant that I almost forgot the object of our meeting.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: Our conversation grew so pleasant that I almost forgot the object of our meeting. After the conversation had run on in this style for some time, General Lee called my attention to the object of our meeting, and said that he had asked for this interview for the purpose of getting from me the terms I proposed to give his army. I said that I meant merely that his army should lay down their arms, not to take them up again during the continuance of the war unless duly and properly exchanged. He said that he had so understood my letter. Ch. 67.

„The war has made us a nation of great power and intelligence.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: The war has made us a nation of great power and intelligence. We have but little to do to preserve peace, happiness and prosperity at home, and the respect of other nations. Our experience ought to teach us the necessity of the first; our power secures the latter.

„It is a subject for congratulation that the great Empire of Brazil has taken the initiatory step toward the abolition of slavery. Our relations with that Empire, always cordial, will naturally be made more so by this act.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: It is a subject for congratulation that the great Empire of Brazil has taken the initiatory step toward the abolition of slavery. Our relations with that Empire, always cordial, will naturally be made more so by this act. It is not too much to hope that the Government of Brazil may hereafter find it for its interest, as well as intrinsically right, to advance toward entire emancipation more rapidly than the present act contemplates.

„I have given the subject of arming the negro my hearty support. This, with the emancipation of the negro, is the heavyest blow yet given the Confederacy. The South rave a greatdeel about it and profess to be very angry.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: I have given the subject of arming the negro my hearty support. This, with the emancipation of the negro, is the heavyest blow yet given the Confederacy. The South rave a greatdeel about it and profess to be very angry. But they were united in their action before and with the negro under subjec­tion could spare their entire white population for the field. Now they complain that nothing can be got out of their negroes.

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