Frases de Rutherford B. Hayes

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Rutherford B. Hayes

Data de nascimento: 4. Outubro 1822
Data de falecimento: 17. Janeiro 1893

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Rutherford Birchard Hayes foi o 19.º Presidente dos Estados Unidos entre 1877 e 1881. Como presidente, supervisionou o final da Reconstrução; iniciou os esforços que deram origem à reforma do serviço púbico; e tentou uma reconciliação entre as divisões originadas pela Guerra da Secessão e Reconstrução.

Hayes, advogado em Ohio, tornou o solicitador da cidade de Cincinnati entre 1858 e 1861. Quando a Guerra Civil começou, decidiu deixar a sua carreira política entediante, para se juntar ao Exército da União como oficial. Hayes foi ferido por cinco vezes, o mais sério deles na Batalha de South Mountain; ganhou uma reputação por bravura em combate, e foi promovido à patente de major-general. Depois da guerra, foi membro do Congresso de 1865 a 1867, do lado Republicano. Hayes deixou o Congresso para se candidatar a Governador de Ohio, e foi eleito por dois períodos consecutivos, entre 1868 a 1872, e um terceiro mandato de 1876 a 1877.

Em 1876, Hayes foi eleito presidente numa das eleições mais controversas e confusas da história nacional. Ele perdeu o voto popular para o democrata Samuel J. Tilden, mas ganhou um voto do colégio eleitoral, intensamente disputado, depois de de uma comissão do Congresso lhe ter atribuído vinte votos eleitorais, muito contestados. O resultado foi o Compromisso de 1877, no qual os democratas aceitaram a eleição de Hayes, e terminaram com a intervenção militar na política do Sul. Este incidente causou o colapso dos estados governados pelos republicanos, e deu origem a uma sólida democracia sulista.

Hayes acreditava num governo de liderança pelo mérito, tratamento igual sem olhar à raça, e desenvolvimento através da educação. Em 1877, deu ordens às tropas federais para reprimir a greve dos caminhos-de-ferro. Implementou reformas modestas no serviço público que abriram caminho a novas reformas nas décadas de 1880s e 1890. Vetou o Decreto Bland-Allison que propunha introduzir dinheiro de prata em circulação e aumentar os preços, insistindo que a manutenção do padrão-ouro era essencial para a recuperação económica. A sua política em relação aos índios antecipou o programa assimilacionista do Decreto Dawes de 1887.

Hayes manteve a sua garantia de não se candidatar a uma nova eleição, e retirou-se para sua casa no Ohio, para se dedicar à advocacia na área das reformas sociais e educacionais. O seu biógrafo Ari Hoogenboom refere que a sua grande conquista foi restaurar a confiança popular na presidência, e reverter a deterioração do poder executivo que se tinha instalado depois da morte de Lincoln.

Citações Rutherford B. Hayes

„Partisanship should be kept out of the pulpit... The blindest of partisans are preachers. All politicians expect and find more candor, fairness, and truth in politicians than in partisan preachers.“

— Rutherford B. Hayes
Context: Partisanship should be kept out of the pulpit... The blindest of partisans are preachers. All politicians expect and find more candor, fairness, and truth in politicians than in partisan preachers. They are not replied to — no chance to reply to them.... The balance wheel of free institutions is free discussion. The pulpit allows no free discussion. Diary (3 January 1892)

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„General Crook gave me a very agreeable present this afternoon — a pair of his old brigadier-general straps.“

— Rutherford B. Hayes
Context: General Crook gave me a very agreeable present this afternoon — a pair of his old brigadier-general straps. The stars are somewhat dimmed by hard service, but will correspond pretty well with my rusty old blouse. Of course I am very much gratified by the promotion. I know perfectly well that the rank has been conferred on all sorts of small people and so cheapened shamefully, but I can’t help feeling that getting it at the close of a most bloody campaign on the recommendation of fighting generals like Crook and Sheridan is a different thing. Letter to Lucy Webb Hayes (9 December 1864)

„Abolish plutocracy if you would abolish poverty.“

— Rutherford B. Hayes
Context: Abolish plutocracy if you would abolish poverty. As millionaires increase, pauperism grows. The more millionaires, the more paupers. Diary (16 February 1890)

„As to Mr. Lincoln’s name and fame and memory, — all is safe.“

— Rutherford B. Hayes
Context: As to Mr. Lincoln’s name and fame and memory, — all is safe. His firmness, moderation, goodness of heart; his quaint humor, his perfect honesty and directness of purpose; his logic his modesty his sound judgment, and great wisdom; the contrast between his obscure beginnings and the greatness of his subsequent position and achievements; his tragic death, giving him almost the crown of martyrdom, elevate him to a place in history second to none other of ancient or modern times. His success in his great office, his hold upon the confidence and affections of his countrymen, we shall all say are only second to Washington’s; we shall probably feel and think that they are not second even to his. Letter to Lucy Webb Hayes (16 April 1865)

„My policy is trust, peace, and to put aside the bayonet.“

— Rutherford B. Hayes
Context: My policy is trust, peace, and to put aside the bayonet. I do not think the wise policy is to decide contested elections in the States by the use of the national army. Diary (14 March 1877)

„I feel the desire to be with you all the time.“

— Rutherford B. Hayes
Context: I feel the desire to be with you all the time. Oh, an occasional absence of a week or two is a good thing to give one the happiness of meeting again, but this living apart is in all ways bad. We have had our share of separate life during the four years of war. There is nothing in the small ambition of Congressional life, or in the gratified vanity which it sometimes affords, to compensate for separation from you. We must manage to live together hereafter. I can’t stand this, and will not. Letter to Lucy Webb Hayes (17 June 1866)

„My speaking is irregular. Sometimes quite good, sometimes not, but generally will do“

— Rutherford B. Hayes
Context: My speaking is irregular. Sometimes quite good, sometimes not, but generally will do... I am too far along in experience and years both for this business. I do not go into [it] with the zest of old times. Races, baseball, and politics are for the youngsters. Letter to Lucy Webb Hayes (14 August 1875)

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„I know perfectly well that the rank has been conferred on all sorts of small people and so cheapened shamefully, but I can’t help feeling that getting it at the close of a most bloody campaign on the recommendation of fighting generals like Crook and Sheridan is a different thing.“

— Rutherford B. Hayes
Context: General Crook gave me a very agreeable present this afternoon — a pair of his old brigadier-general straps. The stars are somewhat dimmed by hard service, but will correspond pretty well with my rusty old blouse. Of course I am very much gratified by the promotion. I know perfectly well that the rank has been conferred on all sorts of small people and so cheapened shamefully, but I can’t help feeling that getting it at the close of a most bloody campaign on the recommendation of fighting generals like Crook and Sheridan is a different thing. Letter to Lucy Webb Hayes (9 December 1864)

„I know we are in frequent perils, that we may never return and all that, but the feeling that I am where I ought to be is a full compensation for all that is sinister, leaving me free to enjoy as if on a pleasure tour.“

— Rutherford B. Hayes
Context: I never enjoyed any business or mode of life as much as I do this. I really feel badly when I think of several of my intimate friends who are compelled to stay at home. These marches and campaigns in the hills of western Virginia will always be among the pleasantest things I can remember. I know we are in frequent perils, that we may never return and all that, but the feeling that I am where I ought to be is a full compensation for all that is sinister, leaving me free to enjoy as if on a pleasure tour. Letter to Lucy Webb Hayes (25 August 1861)

„General education is the best preventive of the evils now most dreaded.“

— Rutherford B. Hayes
Context: General education is the best preventive of the evils now most dreaded. In the civilized countries of the world, the question is how to distribute most generally and equally the property of the world. As a rule, where education is most general the distribution of property is most general.... As knowledge spreads, wealth spreads. To diffuse knowledge is to diffuse wealth. To give all an equal chance to acquire knowledge is the best and surest way to give all an equal chance to acquire property. Diary (15 May 1878)

„The real difficulty is with the vast wealth and power in the hands of the few and the unscrupulous who represent or control capital.“

— Rutherford B. Hayes
Context: The real difficulty is with the vast wealth and power in the hands of the few and the unscrupulous who represent or control capital. Hundreds of laws of Congress and the state legislatures are in the interest of these men and against the interests of workingmen. These need to be exposed and repealed. All laws on corporations, on taxation, on trusts, wills, descent, and the like, need examination and extensive change. This is a government of the people, by the people, and for the people no longer. It is a government of corporations, by corporations, and for corporations. — How is this? Diary (11 March 1888])

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„I am heartily tired of this life of bondage, responsibility, and toil. I wish it was at an end.... We are both physically very healthy.... Our tempers are cheerful. We are social and popular. But it is one of our greatest comforts that the pledge not to take a second term relieves us from considering it. That was a lucky thing.“

— Rutherford B. Hayes
Context: I am heartily tired of this life of bondage, responsibility, and toil. I wish it was at an end.... We are both physically very healthy.... Our tempers are cheerful. We are social and popular. But it is one of our greatest comforts that the pledge not to take a second term relieves us from considering it. That was a lucky thing. It is a reform — or rather a precedent for a reform, which will be valuable. Diary (6 June 1879)

„You use the phrase “brutal Rebels.” Don’t be cheated in that way. There are enough “brutal Rebels” no doubt, but we have brutal officers and men too.“

— Rutherford B. Hayes
Context: You use the phrase “brutal Rebels.” Don’t be cheated in that way. There are enough “brutal Rebels” no doubt, but we have brutal officers and men too. I have had men brutally treated by our own officers on this raid [to Lynchburg, Va. ]. And there are plenty of humane Rebels. I have seen a good deal of it on this trip. War is a cruel business and there is brutality in it on all sides, but it is very idle to get up anxiety on account of any supposed peculiar cruelty on the part of Rebels. Keepers of prisons in Cincinnati, as well as in Danville, are hard-hearted and cruel. Letter to Lucy Webb Hayes, whose cousin was a prisoner and died at Andersonville prison (2 July 1864)

„Races, baseball, and politics are for the youngsters.“

— Rutherford B. Hayes
Context: My speaking is irregular. Sometimes quite good, sometimes not, but generally will do... I am too far along in experience and years both for this business. I do not go into [it] with the zest of old times. Races, baseball, and politics are for the youngsters. Letter to Lucy Webb Hayes (14 August 1875)

„Is there anything in which the people of this age and country differ more from those of other lands and former times than in this — their ability to preserve order and protect rights without the aid of government?“

— Rutherford B. Hayes
Context: Is there anything in which the people of this age and country differ more from those of other lands and former times than in this — their ability to preserve order and protect rights without the aid of government? … We are realizing the paradox, “that country is governed best which is governed least.” I no longer fear lynch law. Let the people be intelligent and good, and I am not sure but their impulsive, instinctive verdicts and sentences and executions, unchecked by the rules and technicalities of law, are more likely to be according to substantial justice than the decisions of courts and juries. Diary (23 July 1851)

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