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Washington Irving

Data de nascimento: 3. Abril 1783
Data de falecimento: 28. Novembro 1859

Washington Irving foi um escritor, biógrafo, ensaísta, historiador e diplomata dos Estados Unidos, do início do século XIX. Ficou conhecido por seus contos "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" e "Rip Van Winkle", os quais foram publicados no livro The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent, de 1819. Suas obras históricas incluem biografias de George Washington, Oliver Goldsmith e Maomé, além de vários acontecimentos do século XV na Espanha que tratam de assuntos tais como Cristóvão Colombo, os mouros, e Alhambra. Irving também serviu como embaixador dos Estados Unidos na Espanha entre 1842 e 1846.

Ele fez sua estreia literária em 1802 com uma série de cartas para o jornal Morning Chronicle, escrito sob o pseudônimo de Jonathan Oldstyle. Após se mudar para a Inglaterra devido a negócios da família em 1815, alcançou fama internacional com a publicação The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent em 1819. Continuou a publicar regularmente — quase sempre com sucesso — ao longo de sua vida, e completou uma biografia em cinco volumes de George Washington apenas oito meses antes de sua morte, aos 76 anos, em Tarrytown no estado de Nova Iorque.

Irving, junto com James Fenimore Cooper, foi um dos primeiros escritores americanos a ganhar atenção na Europa, e encorajou autores americanos, como Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow e Edgar Allan Poe. Irving foi também admirado por alguns escritores europeus, incluindo Sir Walter Scott, Lord Byron, Thomas Campbell, Francis Jeffrey e Charles Dickens. Irving defendeu a escrita como uma profissão legítima, e argumentou a favor de leis mais fortes para proteger os escritores americanos de violação de direitos autorais.

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Citações Washington Irving

„Mentes pequenas são controladas pela desventura e submissas a ela. Grandes mentes crescem acima delas.“

—  Washington Irving
Little minds are tamed and subdued by misfortune ; but great minds rise above it "The Sketh Book" in "The complete works of Washington Irving in one volume: with a memoir of the author"‎ - Página 321 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=LbELAQAAIAAJ&pg=RA1-PA321, Washington Irving - Baudry's European Library, 1843 - 1269 páginas

„Os grandes espíritos têm metas. Os outros apenas desejos.“

—  Washington Irving
Great minds have purposes, others have wishes. citado em "Selected Tagalog proverbs and maxims‎" - Página 50, University Publ. Co., 1948 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=bwrn-Db7MCwC - 182 páginas

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„Love is never lost. If not reciprocated, it will flow back and soften and purify the heart.“

—  Washington Irving
Disputed, Attributed to Irving as early as 1883. [Hit and miss : a story of real life, Angie Stewart, Manly, Chicago, J.L. Regan, 1883, i, http://hdl.handle.net/2027/osu.32435018229575?urlappend=%3Bseq=7] However, it does not seem to appear in Irving's known works. Other citations from the same year leave the quotation unattributed. [Henry S. (ed.), Clubb, The Peacemaker and Court of Arbitration, Volume 1, Universal Peace Union, 1883, 125, Philadelphia, https://books.google.com/books?id=Uu84AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA125] [The Australian Women's Magazine and Domestic Journal, Vol. 2 No. 2 (May 1883), 1883, Melbourne, 435, https://books.google.com/books?id=mq0sAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA435]. A similar passage is found in a pseudonymous novel published two years earlier in 1881: "Julia knew that sacrifices to patience are not in vain. Although they often do not produce the happiness for which they are made, they will, always, flow back and soften and purify the heart of the one who makes them". [Illma, Or, Which was Wife?, Miss, M.L.A., Cornwell & Johnson, 1881, 239, New York, http://hdl.handle.net/2027/osu.32435017658592?urlappend=%3Bseq=245]

„Language gradually varies, and with it fade away the writings of authors who have flourished their allotted time; otherwise, the creative powers of genius would overstock the world, and the mind would be completely bewildered in the endless mazes of literature.“

—  Washington Irving, livro The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent.
The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon (1819–1820), Context: Language gradually varies, and with it fade away the writings of authors who have flourished their allotted time; otherwise, the creative powers of genius would overstock the world, and the mind would be completely bewildered in the endless mazes of literature. Formerly there were some restraints on this excessive multiplication. Works had to be transcribed by hand, which was a slow and laborious operation; they were written either on parchment, which was expensive, so that one work was often erased to make way for another; or on papyrus, which was fragile and extremely perishable. Authorship was a limited and unprofitable craft, pursued chiefly by monks in the leisure and solitude of their cloisters. The accumulation of manuscripts was slow and costly, and confined almost entirely to monasteries. To these circumstances it may, in some measure, be owing that we have not been inundated by the intellect of antiquity; that the fountains of thought have not been broken up, and modern genius drowned in the deluge. But the inventions of paper and the press have put an end to all these restraints. They have made everyone a writer, and enabled every mind to pour itself into print, and diffuse itself over the whole intellectual world. The consequences are alarming. The stream of literature has swollen into a torrent — augmented into a river — expanded into a sea. "The Mutabilities of Literature".

„There rise authors now and then, who seem proof against the mutability of language, because they have rooted themselves in the unchanging principles of human nature.“

—  Washington Irving, livro The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent.
The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon (1819–1820), Context: There rise authors now and then, who seem proof against the mutability of language, because they have rooted themselves in the unchanging principles of human nature. They are like gigantic trees that we sometimes see on the banks of a stream; which, by their vast and deep roots, penetrating through the mere surface, and laying hold on the very foundations of the earth, preserve the soil around them from being swept away by the ever-flowing current, and hold up many a neighboring plant, and perhaps worthless weed, to perpetuity. "The Mutabilities of Literature".

„Great minds have purpose, others have wishes. Little minds are tamed and subdued by misfortunes; but great minds rise above them.“

—  Washington Irving, livro The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent.
The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon (1819–1820), "Philip of Pokanoket : An Indian Memoir". A more extensive statement not found as such in this work is attributed to Irving in Elbert Hubbard's Scrap Book (1923) edited by Roycroft Shop:

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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