Frases de Niklas Luhmann
Data de nascimento: 8. Dezembro 1927
Data de falecimento: 6. Novembro 1998
Niklas Luhmann foi um sociólogo alemão apontado como um dos principais autores das teorias sociais do século XX, deixando uma obra com mais de 14.000 páginas.Durante sua carreira acadêmica, Luhmann também abordou em seus estudos a política, as artes, economia, religião e os sistemas comunicacionais.
Adepto de uma teoria particularmente própria do pensamento sistêmico, Luhmann investiga os sistemas sociais e se apropria de um conceito da Biologia desenvolvido pelo pesquisador Humberto Maturana, juntamente com Francisco Varela, a autopoiese, que consistia na “auto reprodução de uma espécie”. Essa ideia foi incorporada à sociedade devido ao princípio de fechamento operativo que existe dentro dos sistemas que a compõem. Wikipedia
Citações Niklas Luhmann
„Com informação o sistema pode trabalhar. A informação é, portanto, um valor positivo, um valor de designação, com o qual o sistema descreve as possibilidades de seu próprio operar.“
Fonte: Livro A realidade dos meios de comunicação, Ed. Paulus, de 2005, pág. 39
„The art system operates on its own terms, but an observer of art can choose many different distinctions to indicate what he observes.“
Fonte: Art As a Social System (2000), p. 102.
„Humans cannot communicate; not even their brains can communicate; not even their conscious minds can communicate. Only communication can communicate.“
Luhmann (1988) "How can the mind participate in communication" In: Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht et all. (Ed.) Materialities of Communication. p. 371 ( link http://books.google.nl/books?id=WDmrAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA371).
„No matter how abstractly formulated are a general theory of systems, a general theory of evolution and a general theory of communication, all three theoretical components are necessary for the specifically sociological theory of society. They are mutually interdependent.“
Luhmann (1982) The Differentiation of Society, Translated by Stephen Holmes and Charles Larmore. Columbia University Press, New York, 1982, pp. 261. Cited in: Loet Leydesdorff (2000) " Luhmann, Habermas, and the Theory of Communication http://www.leydesdorff.net/montreal.htm".
„Does knowledge rest on construction in the sense that it only functions because the knowing system is operatively closed, therefore: because it can maintain no operative contact with the outside world; and because it therefore remains dependent, for everything that it constructs, on its own distinction between self-reference and allo-reference?“
Luhmann (1991) “Wie lassen sich latente Strukturen beobachten?,” in Paul Watzlawick, Peter Krieg (eds.), Das Auge des Betrachters: Beiträge zum Konstruktivismus. Festschrift für Heinz von Foerster, Piper, München-Zürich, p. 71; cited in: Heinz von Foerster (1993) " For Niklas Luhmann: “How Recursive is Communication?” http://e1020.pbworks.com/f/fulltext-2.pdf". Translated by Richard Howe.
„Unlike philosophy, art does not search for islands of security from which other experiences can be expelled as fantastic or imaginary, or rejected as a world of secondary qualities or enjoyment, of pleasure or common sense. Art radicalizes the difference between the real and the merely possible in order to show through works of its own that even in the realm of possibility there is order after all. Art opposes, to use a Hegelian formulation, “the prose of the world,” but for precisely this reason it needs this contrast.“
Fonte: Art As a Social System (2000), p. 146 as cited in: Astonishment And Recognition http://unrealnature.wordpress.com/2012/01/26/astonishment-and-recognition/ on unrealnature.wordpress.com, January 26, 2012.
„We are still spellbound by a tradition that arranged psychological faculties hierarchically, relegating ‘sensuousness’ — that is, perception — to a lower position in comparison to higher, reflective functions of reason and understanding. The most advanced versions of ‘conceptual art’ still follow this tradition. By refusing to base themselves in sensuously perceptible distinctions between works of art and other objects, these works seek to avoid reducing art to the realm of sense perception.“
Fonte: Art As a Social System (2000), p. 5 as cited by Andrew E. McNamara (2010) "Visual acuity is not what it seems : on Ian Burn's 'Late' reflections". In: Ann Stephen (Ed.) Mirror Mirror http://sydney.edu.au/museums/pdfs/Art_Gallery/mirror_mirror_catalogue.pdf.
„The effect if not the function of the mass media seems to lie, therefore, in the reproduction of non- transparency through transparency, in the reproduction of non-transparency of effects through transparency of knowledge.“
Fonte: The reality of the Mass Media (2000), p. 103.
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„In the twentieth century, one encounters artworks that seek to cancel the difference between a real and an imagined reality by presenting themselves in ways that make them indistinguishable from real objects. Should we take this trend as an internal reaction of art against itself?“
Fonte: Art As a Social System (2000), p. 145.
„By representing themselves as a system [the mass media ] generates boundaries with an inside and an outside that is inaccessible to them. They too reflect [or represent] their outside as public life, so long as specific external relationships, such as to politics or to the advertisers, are not in question.“
Fonte: The reality of the Mass Media (2000), p. 106 as cited in: John Downin (2004) The SAGE Handbook of Media Studies. p. 234.
„The activity of observing establishes a distinction in a space that remains unmarked, the space from which the observer executes the distinction. The observer must employ a distinction in order to generate the difference between unmarked and marked space, and between himself and what he indicates. The whole point of this distinction (its intention) is to mark something as distinct from something else. At the same time, the observer — in drawing a distinction - makes himself visable to others. He betrays his presence - even if a further distinction is required to distinguish him.“
Fonte: Art As a Social System (2000), p. 54 as cited in: Pamela M. Lee (2004) Chronophobia: On Time in the Art of the 1960's. p. 66.
„The second-order cybernetics worked out by Heinz von Foerster is rightly held to be a constructivist theory, if no an a manifesto for operational constructivism. The reverse doesn't apply, however. Constructivist epistemologies do not necessarily have the rigor of a cybernetics of cybernetics. One can obeserve congnitions as constructions of an observer, without linking with this the theory that the observing observer observes himself or herself as an observer.“
Fonte: The reality of the Mass Media (2000), p. 117.