Frases de Karl Jaspers

Karl Jaspers photo
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Karl Jaspers

Data de nascimento: 23. Fevereiro 1883
Data de falecimento: 26. Fevereiro 1969
Outros nomes: Karl Theodor Jaspers

Karl Theodor Jaspers foi um filósofo e psiquiatra alemão.

Estudou medicina e, depois de trabalhar no hospital psiquiátrico da Universidade de Heidelberg, tornou-se professor de psicologia da Faculdade de Letras dessa instituição. Desligado de seu cargo pelo regime nazista em 1937, foi readmitido em 1945 e, três anos depois, passou a lecionar filosofia na Universidade de Basileia.

O pensamento de Jaspers foi influenciado pelo seu conhecimento em psicopatologia e, em parte, pelo pensamento de Kierkegaard, Nietzsche e Max Weber. Sempre teve interesse em integrar a ciência ao pensamento filosófico na medida em que, para Jaspers, as ciências são por si sós insuficientes e necessitam do exame crítico que só pode ser dado pela filosofia. Esta, por sua vez, deve basear-se numa elucidação, a mais completa possível, da existência do homem real, e não da humanidade abstrata. O resultado das reflexões de Jaspers sobre o tema foi a primeira formulação de sua filosofia existencial. Autor do livro de dois volumes: "Psicopatologia Geral" [1][ligação inativa], grande marco em sua carreira e na evolução da psicopatologia.

O existencialismo constitui, segundo Jaspers, o âmbito no qual se dá todo o saber e todo o descobrimento possível. Por isso a filosofia da existência vem a constituir-se numa metafísica. A existência, em qualquer de seus aspetos, é precisamente o contrário de um "objeto", pois pode ser definida como "o que é para si encaminhada". O problema central é como pensar a existência sem torná-la objeto.

A existência humana é entendida como intimamente vinculada à historicidade e à noção de situação: o existir é um transcender na liberdade, que abre o caminho em meio a um conjunto de situações históricas concretas.

Jaspers preocupou-se em estabelecer as relações entre existência e razão, o que levou-o a investigar em profundidade o conceito de verdade. Para ele, a verdade não é entendida como característica de nenhum enunciado particular: é antes uma espécie de ambiente que envolve todo o conhecimento.

Dentre suas obras, pode-se destacar:

1931 A Situação Espiritual do Nosso Tempo;

1932 Filosofia;

1953 Introdução à Filosofia.

„A filosofia busca tornar a existência transparente a ela mesma.“

—  Karl Jaspers

Introdução ao pensamento filosófico‎ - Página 91 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=yu6FYPXUoE0C&pg=PA91, Karl Jaspers - Editora Cultrix, 1965, ISBN 8531602092, 9788531602092 - 148 páginas

„Mesmo diante do desastre possível e total, a filosofia continuaria a preservar a dignidade do homem em declínio.“

—  Karl Jaspers

Introdução ao pensamento filosófico‎ - Página 147 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=yu6FYPXUoE0C&pg=PA147, Karl Jaspers - Editora Cultrix, 1965, ISBN 8531602092, 9788531602092 - 148 páginas

„A independência do filósofo se torna falsa quando se mescla de orgulho. No homem autêntico, o sentimento de independência sempre se acompanha do sentimento de impotência“

—  Karl Jaspers

Introdução ao pensamento filosófico‎ - Página 144 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=yu6FYPXUoE0C&pg=PA144, Karl Jaspers - Editora Cultrix, 1965, ISBN 8531602092, 9788531602092 - 148 páginas

„O amor iluminado pela razão filosófica, liga-se a uma confiança – inexplicável, sem objeto, intelectualmente incompreensível – no fundamento último das coisas.“

—  Karl Jaspers

Introdução ao pensamento filosófico‎ - Página 125 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=yu6FYPXUoE0C&pg=PA125, Karl Jaspers - Editora Cultrix, 1965, ISBN 8531602092, 9788531602092 - 148 páginas

„O problema crucial é o seguinte: a filosofia aspira à verdade total, que o mundo não quer.“

—  Karl Jaspers

Introdução ao pensamento filosófico‎ - Página 140 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=yu6FYPXUoE0C&pg=PA140, Karl Jaspers - Editora Cultrix, 1965, ISBN 8531602092, 9788531602092 - 148 páginas

„A filosofia entrevê os critérios últimos, a abóbada celeste das possibilidades e procura, à luz do aparentemente impossível, a via pela qual o homem poderá enobrecer-se em sua existência empírica.“

—  Karl Jaspers

Introdução ao pensamento filosófico‎ - Página 138 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=yu6FYPXUoE0C&pg=PA138, Karl Jaspers - Editora Cultrix, 1965, ISBN 8531602092, 9788531602092 - 148 páginas

„O simples saber é uma acumulação, a filosofia é uma unidade. O saber é racional e igualmente acessível a qualquer inteligência. A filosofia é o modo do pensamento que termina por constituir a essência mesma de um ser humano.“

—  Karl Jaspers

Introdução ao pensamento filosófico‎ - Página 13 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=yu6FYPXUoE0C&pg=PA13, Karl Jaspers - Editora Cultrix, 1965, ISBN 8531602092, 9788531602092 - 148 páginas

„A inocência ignorante da unidade aparentemente natural entre conhecimento empírico e juízo de valor é uma falha de tomada de consciência, falha, por assim dizer, auto-infligida: podemos dela nos desvencilhar.“

—  Karl Jaspers

Introdução ao pensamento filosófico‎ - Página 83-84 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=yu6FYPXUoE0C&pg=PA83, Karl Jaspers - Editora Cultrix, 1965, ISBN 8531602092, 9788531602092 - 148 páginas

„Man, if he is to remain man, must advance by way of consciousness.“

—  Karl Jaspers

Man in the Modern Age (1933)
Contexto: Man, if he is to remain man, must advance by way of consciousness. There is no road leading backward.... We can no longer veil reality from ourselves by renouncing self-consciousness without simultaneously excluding ourselves from the historical course of human existence. <!-- p. 143

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„The Greek word for philosopher (philosophos) connotes a distinction from sophos. It signifies the lover of wisdom (knowledge) as distinguished from him who considers himself wise in the possession of knowledge. This meaning of the word still endures: the essence of philosophy is not the possession of the truth but the search for truth.“

—  Karl Jaspers

Way to Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy (1951) as translated by Ralph Mannheim, Ch. 1, What is Philosophy?, p. 12
Variant translation: It is the search for the truth, not possession of the truth which is the way of philosophy. Its questions are more relevant than its answers, and every answer becomes a new question.
Contexto: The Greek word for philosopher (philosophos) connotes a distinction from sophos. It signifies the lover of wisdom (knowledge) as distinguished from him who considers himself wise in the possession of knowledge. This meaning of the word still endures: the essence of philosophy is not the possession of the truth but the search for truth. … Philosophy means to be on the way. Its questions are more essential than its answers, and every answer becomes a new question.

„I approach the presentation of Kierkegaard with some trepidation. Next to Nietzsche, or rather, prior to Nietzsche, I consider him to be the most important thinker of our post-Kantian age.“

—  Karl Jaspers, The Great Philosophers

The Great Philosophers (1962)
Contexto: I approach the presentation of Kierkegaard with some trepidation. Next to Nietzsche, or rather, prior to Nietzsche, I consider him to be the most important thinker of our post-Kantian age. With Goethe and Hegel, an epoch had reached its conclusion, and our prevalent way of thinking — that is, the positivistic, natural-scientific one — cannot really be considered as philosophy.

„We are sorely deficient in talking with each other and listening to each other. We lack mobility, criticism and self-criticism. We incline to doctrinism. What makes it worse is that so many people do not really want to think. They want only slogans and obedience.“

—  Karl Jaspers

The Question of German Guilt (1947)
Contexto: We are sorely deficient in talking with each other and listening to each other. We lack mobility, criticism and self-criticism. We incline to doctrinism. What makes it worse is that so many people do not really want to think. They want only slogans and obedience. They ask no questions and they give no answers, except by repeating drilled-in phrases. They can only assert and obey, neither probe nor apprehend. Thus they cannot be convinced, either. How shall we talk with people who will not go where others probe and think, where men seek independence in insight and conviction?

„Imminent seems the collapse of that which for millennium has constituted man's universe.“

—  Karl Jaspers

Man in the Modern Age (1933)
Contexto: Imminent seems the collapse of that which for millennium has constituted man's universe. The new world which has arisen as an apparatus for supply of the necessaries of life compels everything and everyone to serve it. It annihilates whatever it has no place for person seems to be going undergoing absorption into that which is nothing more than a means to an end, into that which is devoid of purpose of significance. <!-- p. 79

„My path was not the normal one of professors of philosophy.“

—  Karl Jaspers

On My Philosopy (1941)
Contexto: My path was not the normal one of professors of philosophy. I did not intend to become a doctor of philosophy by studying philosophy (I am in fact a doctor of medicine) nor did I by any means, intend originally to qualify for a professorship by a dissertation on philosophy. To decide to become a philosopher seemed as foolish to me as to decide to become a poet. Since my schooldays, however, I was guided by philosophical questions. Philosophy seemed to me the supreme, even the sole, concern of man. Yet a certain awe kept me from making it my profession.

„The general fellowship of our human situation has been rendered even more dubious than before, inasmuch as, though the old ties of caste have been loosened, a new restriction of the individual to some prescribed status in society is manifest. Less than ever, perhaps, is it possible for a man to transcend the limitations imposed by his social origins.“

—  Karl Jaspers

Man in the Modern Age (1933)
Contexto: The general fellowship of our human situation has been rendered even more dubious than before, inasmuch as, though the old ties of caste have been loosened, a new restriction of the individual to some prescribed status in society is manifest. Less than ever, perhaps, is it possible for a man to transcend the limitations imposed by his social origins.<!-- p. 29

„It may stamp all flat; it is disinclined to tolerate independence and greatness, but prone to constrain people to become as automatic as ants.“

—  Karl Jaspers

Man in the Modern Age (1933)
Contexto: The masses are our masters; and for every one who looks facts in the face his existence has become dependent on them, so that the thought of them must control his doings, his cares, and his duties.
Even an articulated mass always tends to become unspiritual and inhuman. It is life without existence, superstitions without faith. It may stamp all flat; it is disinclined to tolerate independence and greatness, but prone to constrain people to become as automatic as ants.<!-- p. 43

„The masses are our masters; and for every one who looks facts in the face his existence has become dependent on them, so that the thought of them must control his doings, his cares, and his duties.“

—  Karl Jaspers

Man in the Modern Age (1933)
Contexto: The masses are our masters; and for every one who looks facts in the face his existence has become dependent on them, so that the thought of them must control his doings, his cares, and his duties.
Even an articulated mass always tends to become unspiritual and inhuman. It is life without existence, superstitions without faith. It may stamp all flat; it is disinclined to tolerate independence and greatness, but prone to constrain people to become as automatic as ants.<!-- p. 43

„Our questions and answers are in part determined by the historical tradition in which we find ourselves.“

—  Karl Jaspers

On My Philosopy (1941)
Contexto: Our questions and answers are in part determined by the historical tradition in which we find ourselves. We apprehend truth from our own source within the historical tradition.
The content of our truth depends upon our appropriating the historical foundation. Our own power of generation lies in the rebirth of what has been handed down to us. If we do not wish to slip back, nothing must be forgotten; but if philosophising is to be genuine our thoughts must arise from our own source. Hence all appropriation of tradition proceeds from the intentness of our own life. The more determinedly I exist, as myself, within the conditions of the time, the more clearly I shall hear the language of the past, the nearer I shall feel the glow of its life.

„When the titanic apparatus of the mass-order has been consolidated, the individual has to serve it, and must from time to time combine with his fellows in order to renovate it. If he wants to make his livelihood by intellectual activity, he will find it very difficult to do this except by satisfying the needs of the many. He must give currency to something that will please the crowd.“

—  Karl Jaspers

Man in the Modern Age (1933)
Contexto: When the titanic apparatus of the mass-order has been consolidated, the individual has to serve it, and must from time to time combine with his fellows in order to renovate it. If he wants to make his livelihood by intellectual activity, he will find it very difficult to do this except by satisfying the needs of the many. He must give currency to something that will please the crowd. They seek satisfaction in the pleasures of the table, eroticism, self-assertion; they find no joy in life if one of these gratifications be curtailed. They also desire some means of self-knowledge. They desire to be led in such as way that they can fancy themselves leaders. Without wishing to be free, they would fain be accounted free. One who would please their taste must produce what is really average and commonplace, though not frankly styled such; must glorify or at least justify something as universally human. Whatever is beyond their understanding is uncongenial to them.
One who would influence the masses must have recourse to the art of advertisement. The clamour of puffery is to-day requisite even for an intellectual movement. The days of quiet and unpretentious activity seem over and done with. You must keep yourself in the public eye, give lectures, make speeches, arouse a sensation. Yet the mass-apparatus lacks true greatness of representation, lacks solemnity. <!-- pp. 43 - 44

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