Tito, as quoted in Julie Mertus' Kosovo: how myths and truths started a war (University of California Press, 1999), p. 22
Frases de Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
Data de nascimento: 7. Maio 1892
Data de falecimento: 4. Maio 1980
O Marechal Josip Broz Tito GColIH foi um militar, revolucionário comunista e estadista iugoslavo, líder dos guerrilheiros da resistência em seu país, denominados partisans, durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, sendo o maior responsável pela resistência armada às forças do Eixo e aos nazi-fascistas croatas e sérvios, mesmo sem apoio político e material dos Aliados. Posteriormente, Tito se tornaria presidente da Iugoslávia, cargo que exerceu de 1953 até 1980, ano de sua morte.
Filho de pai croata e mãe eslovena, Tito nasceu no Império Austro-Húngaro. No serviço militar, se destacou, tornando-se o mais jovem sargento-major dentro do exército do país. Após ter sido gravemente ferido e capturado pelos russos durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial, Josip foi enviado a um campo de trabalhos forçados nos Urais. Mais tarde, ele participaria da Revolução de Outubro, que derrubou o czarismo na Rússia, e posteriormente se juntaria à Guarda Vermelha na cidade de Omsk. Ao retornar para a terra natal, Tito se deparou com o recém-instaurado Reino da Iugoslávia, onde ingressaria na Liga dos Comunistas. Em 1939, tornou-se chefe da Liga, cargo que exerceria até a morte, e lutou na Segunda Guerra Mundial, chefiando o movimento guerrilheiro iugoslavo, os chamados partisans. Após a guerra, Tito tornou-se primeiro-ministro e mais tarde o Presidente da República Socialista Federativa da Iugoslávia. A partir de 1943, passou a carregar a patente de Marechal, tornando-se o comandante supremo do exército iugoslavo. Com grande reputação em ambos os blocos da Guerra Fria, por sua posição neutra, Tito passou a ser constantemente elogiado e congratulado com 98 condecorações, tanto por reconhecimento como pelo interesse em obter o apoio iugoslavo.
Figura importante e controversa da Guerra Fria, Tito fora criticado e elogiado por ambos os lados do globo. Símbolo de união entre os povos da Iugoslávia por ter mantido a paz entre as diferentes etnias dos Balcãs, palco de históricos conflitos separatistas, Tito também é considerado um ditador autoritário, que sufocou os anseios de independência e liberdade dos diferentes povos de seu país, apesar de seu carisma característico, que lhe rendeu o apoio do povo iugoslavo, fazendo dele uma das figuras mais populares de seu tempo. Pelo resto do mundo, Tito é respeitado e admirado pela sua luta contra os nazistas, e principalmente por ter sido um líder com a força, coragem e capacidade de manter seu país livre de influências estrangeiras durante a Guerra Fria, fosse da União Soviética ou dos Estados Unidos, além de ter defendido a união e soberania dos países do chamado terceiro mundo. Tito foi um cidadão do mundo e reconhecido aventureiro, vivendo em diversas nações europeias, como Croácia, Eslovênia, Sérvia, República Checa, Áustria, Alemanha, e Rússia, onde foi preso, conseguiu escapar e ainda lutou para derrubar o tsar. Era um dos mais conhecidos adeptos do Estado laico. Seu funeral atraiu centenas de líderes mundiais, sendo o funeral com maior participação em toda a história até então, superado apenas pelo do papa João Paulo II, vinte e cinco anos mais tarde. Após a sua morte, diferenças, ódio e ressentimentos entre diferentes grupos étnicos desencadearam o maior conflito bélico europeu após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, desmembrando as repúblicas iugoslavas, e levando a guerras e impasses que perduram até hoje na região, como o caso de Kosovo. Tito foi o arquiteto da "nova Iugoslávia", a república socialista que existiu entre a Segunda Guerra Mundial e 1991. Apesar de ter sido um dos fundadores do Cominform, o departamento que reunia as nações socialistas do globo, Tito foi o único membro da organização a desafiar a hegemonia da União Soviética sobre as demais nações do bloco. Defensor de uma rota independente em direção ao socialismo, ideologia que ganhou o nome de Titoísmo, ele foi um dos fundadores do Movimento Não Alinhado, que era contrário a um alinhamento aos dois blocos denominados "hostis" — a OTAN e o Pacto de Varsóvia. Com o sucesso de suas políticas diplomáticas e econômicas, Tito foi capaz de comandar a explosão econômica e a expansão da Iugoslávia nos anos 1960 e 1970. Suas políticas internas incluíam a supressão do sentimento separatista e a promoção da irmandade e unidade entre as seis nações iugoslavas.
Citações Josip Broz Tito
Tito, as quoted in Julie Mertus' Kosovo: how myths and truths started a war (University of California Press, 1999), p. 22
„The bishops play the hero and say they are ready to fight, even if it costs them their lives. The fight against whom? Against the people's government, of course, against our new democratic Yugoslavia … But how is it that the bishops did not issue this kind of pastoral letter, to be read in all the churches, in the days of Pavelić and the Germans, against those terrible massacres of Serbs in Croatia in which hundreds of thousands of women, children and menfolk lost their lives?“
Jasper Ridley, Tito: A Biography (Constable and Company Ltd., 1994), p. 278.
„The peoples of Yugoslavia do not want Fascism. They do not want a totalitarian regime, they do not want to become slaves of the German and Italian financial oligarchy as they never wanted to become reconciled to the semi-colonial dependence imposed on them by the so-called Western democracies after the first imperialist war.“
Jasper Ridley, Tito: A Biography (Constable and Company Ltd., 1994), p. 155.
„None of our republics would be anything if we weren't all together, but we have to create our history — our Yugoslavian socialist history, that is unique, in the future — that is our path; not touching the national rights of the some republics to preserve their own traditions, not at the expense of, but in the interest of the whole community, to mutually complete each other. That is what we want, and not the destruction of our unity.“
Frequently quoted fragment of Tito's speech in Split 1962 Source: YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7s7ldiX6lc
„Today, 9 May, exactly forty-nine months and three days after the Fascist attack on Yugoslavia, the most powerful aggressive force in Europe, Germany, has capitulated.“
Jasper Ridley, Tito: A Biography (Constable and Company Ltd., 1994), p. 252.
„In the most trying hours, through dismal nights and endless interrogations and maltreatment, during days of killing solitude in cells and close confinement, we were always sustained by the hope that all these agonies were not in vain, that there was a strong and mighty country, however far away, in which all the dreams for which we were fighting had been fulfilled. For us it was the homeland of the workers, in which labour was honoured, in which love, comradeship, and sincerity prevailed. With what joy I had felt the strength of that country as, emerging from prison in 1934, I listened in the dead of each night to Radio Moscow and heard the clock of the Kremlin tower striking the hours, and the stirring strains of the 'International.“
Jasper Ridley, Tito: A Biography (Constable and Company Ltd., 1994), p. 128.
„To Joseph Stalin: Stop sending people to kill me! We've already captured five of them, one of them with a bomb and another with a rifle… If you don't stop sending killers, I'll send a very fast working one to Moscow and I certainly won't have to send another.“
Robert Service, Stalin: A Biography (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005), p. 592.
Message found among the personal effects of Joseph Stalin.
„Comrade Khrushchev often repeats that Socialism cannot be built with American wheat. I think it can be done by anyone who knows how to do it, while a person who doesn't know how to do it cannot build Socialism even with his own wheat. Khrushchev says we live on charity received from the imperialist countries … What moral right have those who attack us to rebuke us about American aid or credits when Khruschev himself has just tried to conclude an economic agreement with America?“
Jasper Ridley, Tito: A Biography (Constable and Company Ltd., 1994), p. 348-349.
„Our sacrifices are terrible. I can safely say that there is no other part of the world which has been devastated on a vaster scale than Yugoslavia. Every tenth Yugoslav has perished in this struggle in which we were forced to wrest armaments from our enemies, to freeze without clothing, and to die without medication.
Nevertheless our optimism and faith have proved justified. The greatest gain of this conflict between democracy and fascism lies in the fact that it has drawn together everything that was good in humanity. The unity of the United States, the Soviet Union and Great Britain is the best guarantee to the peoples of the world that Nazi horrors will never again be repeated.“
“Our Optimism and Faith” http://www.marxists.org/archive/tito/1945/02/04.htm Liberation magazine, page 3 (United Committee of South- Slavonic Americans, 1945)
Jasper Ridley, Tito: A Biography (Constable and Company Ltd., 1994), p. 185.
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As said to former Foreign Minister Mirko Tepavac in 1971. (Yugoslavia: A State that Withered Away, Dejan Jović, Purdue University Press, 2009, p.45)
„I knew that many things were wrong… I witnessed a great many injustices… But it was my revolutionary duty at the time not to criticize and not to help alien propaganda against [the Soviet Union], for at that time it was the only country where a revolution had been carried out and where Socialism had been built. I considered that propaganda should not be made against that country; that my duty was to make propaganda in my own country for Socialism.“
Jasper Ridley, Tito: A Biography (Constable and Company Ltd., 1994), p. 142.
„Churchill, he is a great man. He is, of course, our enemy and has always been the enemy of Communism, but he is an enemy one must respect, an enemy one likes to have.“
Jasper Ridley, Tito: A Biography (Constable and Company Ltd., 1994), p. 323.
„We have said, and we will always say again, that we are opposed to the intervention of foreign military forces. But which was the lesser evil? Chaos, civil war, counter-revolution, and a new world war, or an intervention by Soviet troops? … I say clearly that the first alternative was the worst thing that could have occurred, and the second, the intervention of Soviet troops, was a necessary evil.“
Tito on the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, as quoted in Jasper Ridley, Tito: A Biography (Constable and Company Ltd., 1994), p. 342.
„No country of people's democracy has so many nationalities as this country has. Only in Czechoslovakia do there exist two kindred nationalities, while in some of the other countries there are only minorities. Consequently in these countries of people's democracy there has been no need to settle such serious problems as we have had to settle here. With them the road to socialism is less complicated than is the case here. With them the basic factor is the class issue, with us it is both the nationalities and the class issue. The reason why we were able to settle the nationalities question so thoroughly is to be found in the fact that it had begun to be settled in a revolutionary way in the course of the Liberation War, in which all the nationalities in the country participated, in which every national group made its contribution to the general effort of liberation from the occupier according to its capabilities. Neither the Macedonians nor any other national group which until then had been oppressed obtained their national liberation by decree. They fought for their national liberation with rifle in hand. The role of the Communist Party lay in the first place in the fact that it led that struggle, which was a guarantee that after the war the national question would be settled decisively in the way the communists had conceived long before the war and during the war. The role of the Communist Party in this respect today, in the phase of building socialism, lies in making the positive national factors a stimulus to, not a brake on, the development of socialism in our country. The role of the Communist Party today lies in the necessity for keeping a sharp lookout to see that national chauvinism does not appear and develop among any of the nationalities. The Communist Party must always endeavour, and does endeavour, to ensure that all the negative phenomena of nationalism disappear and that people are educated in the spirit of internationalism. What are the phenomena of nationalism? Here are some of them: 1) National egoism, from which many other negative traits of nationalism are derived, as for example — a desire for foreign conquest, a desire to oppress other nations, a desire to impose economic exploitation upon other nations, and so on; 2) national-chauvinism which is also a source of many other negative traits of nationalism, as for example national hatred, the disparagement of other nations, the disparagement of their history, culture, and scientific activities and scientific achievements, and so on, the glorification of developments in their own history that were negative and which from our Marxist point of view are considered negative. And what are these negative things? Wars of conquest are negative, the subjugation and oppression of other nations is negative, economic exploitation is negative, colonial enslavement is negative, and so on. All these things are accounted negative by Marxism and condemned. All these phenomena of the past can, it is true, be explained, but from our point of view they can never be justified. In a socialist society such phenomena must and will disappear. In the old Yugoslavia national oppression by the great-Serb capitalist clique meant strengthening the economic exploitation of the oppressed peoples. This is the inevitable fate of all who suffer from national oppression. In the new, socialist Yugoslavia the existing equality of rights for all nationalities has made it impossible for one national group to impose economic exploitation upon another. That is because hegemony of one national group over another no longer exists in this country. Any such hegemony must inevitably bring with it, to some degree or other, in one form or another, economic exploitation; and that would be contrary to the principles upon which socialism rests. Only economic, political, cultural, and universal equality of rights can make it possible for us to grow in strength in these tremendous endeavours of our community.“
Concerning the National Question and Social Patriotism http://www.marxists.org/archive/tito/1948/11/26.htm Speech held at the Slovene Academy of Arts and Sciences, November 26, 1948, Ljubljana
„Think well about this, dear brothers and sisters, and you will see that we should have been in a state of terrible chaos, in a fratricidal war, in a country which would no longer be Yugoslavia, but be only a group of petty little states fighting among themselves and destroying each other. But our people do not want that to happen.“
Jasper Ridley, Tito: A Biography (Constable and Company Ltd., 1994), p. 263.
„We will liquidate the kulak, but not because he is a kulak but because he is a fifth columnist … The present struggle is national liberation in form, but class war in essence.“
Jasper Ridley, Tito: A Biography (Constable and Company Ltd., 1994), p. 188.