Frases de Joana d'Arc

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Joana d'Arc

Data de nascimento: 6. Janeiro 1412
Data de falecimento: 30. Maio 1431
Outros nomes:Santa Giovanna d'Arco

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Joana d'Arc , cognominada "A Donzela de Orléans" e também conhecida como Joana d'Arc, a ruiva é uma heroína francesa e santa da Igreja Católica. É a santa padroeira da França e foi uma chefe militar da Guerra dos Cem Anos, durante a qual tomou partido pelos Armagnacs, na longa luta contra os Borguinhões e seus aliados ingleses. Foi executada na fogueira, em um auto de fé pelos Borguinhões em 1431. Camponesa, modesta e analfabeta, foi uma mártir francesa e também heroína de seu povo, reabilitada 25 anos após sua morte, em 1456, pelo Papa Calisto III, por considerar seu processo inválido, e canonizada em 1920, pelo papa Bento XV.

Segundo a escritora Irène Kuhn, Joana d'Arc foi esquecida pela história até o século XIX, conhecido como o século do nacionalismo, o que pode confirmar as teorias de Ernest Gellner. Irène Kuhn escreveu que foi apenas no século XIX que a França redescobriu esta personagem trágica. François Villon, nascido em 1431, no ano de sua morte, evoca sua lembrança na Ballade des dames du temps jadis ou seja, Balada das damas do tempo passado:

Shakespeare retratou-a como uma feiticeira na peça Henrique VI; Voltaire escreveu um poema satírico, pseudo-ensaio histórico, em que a ridicularizava, intitulado La Pucelle d´Orléans ou "A Donzela de Orléans".Depois da Revolução Francesa, o partido monárquico reavivou a lembrança da boa lorena, que jamais desistiu do seu rei. Joana foi recuperada pelos profetas da "França eterna", em primeiro lugar pelo grande historiador romântico Jules Michelet. Com o romantismo, o alemão Schiller fez dela a heroína da sua peça de teatro Die Jungfrau von Orléans, publicada em 1801. Em 1870, quando a França foi derrotada pela Alemanha, evento que leva à ocupação da Alsácia e da Lorena pelas tropas alemãs, "Jeanne, a pequena pastora de Domrémy, um pouco ingênua", tornou-se a heroína do sentimento patriótico francês. Republicanos e nacionalistas exaltaram aquela que deu a sua vida pela pátria. Durante a primeira fase da Terceira República, no entanto, o culto a Joana d'Arc esteve associado à direita monarquista, da qual era um dos símbolos, como o rei Henrique IV, sendo todavia mal vista pelos republicanos.

A Igreja Católica francesa propôs ao Papa Pio X a sua beatificação, que se realizou em 1909, num período dominado pela exaltação do nacionalismo e pelo repúdio ao não nacional, principalmente ao que provinha de Inglaterra ou da Alemanha. O gesto do Papa teve como propósito político fazer a Igreja de França entrar em sintonia política com os dirigentes anticlericais da III República, e só com a Primeira Guerra Mundial, de 1914 a 1918, Joana deixa de ser uma heroína exclusiva da direita. Segundo Irène Kuhn, a partir desse período os "postais patrióticos" mostram Jeanne à cabeça dos exércitos e monumentos seus aparecem como cogumelos por toda a França. O Parlamento francês estabelece uma festa nacional em sua honra no 2º domingo de maio.

Em 9 de maio de 1920, cerca de 500 anos depois de sua morte, Joana d'Arc foi definitivamente reabilitada, sendo canonizada pelo Papa Bento XV, como Santa Joana d'Arc. A canonização traduzia o desejo da Santa Sé de estabelecer laços com a França republicana, laica e nacionalista. Em 1922 foi declarada padroeira de França.

Citações Joana d'Arc

„The Voice had promised me that, as soon I came to the King, he would receive me.“

— Joan of Arc
Context: The Voice had promised me that, as soon I came to the King, he would receive me. Those of my party knew well that the Voice had been sent me from God; they have seen and known this Voice, I am sure of it. My King and many others have also heard and seen the Voices which came to me: there were there Charles de Bourbon and two or three others. There is not a day when I do not hear this Voice; and I have much need of it. But never have I asked of it any recompense but the salvation of my soul. Second public examination (22 February 1431)

„I would that every one could hear the Voice as I hear it.“

— Joan of Arc
Context: The light comes at the same time as the Voice. … I will not tell you all; I have not leave; my oath does not touch on that. My Voice is good and to be honored. I am not bound to answer you about it. I request that the points on which I do not now answer may be given me in writing. … You shall not know yet. There is a saying among children, that 'Sometimes one is hanged for speaking the truth.'" [She is asked : Do you know if you are in the grace of God? ] If I am not, may God place me there; if I am, may God so keep me. I should be the saddest in all the world if I knew that I were not in the grace of God. But if I were in a state of sin, do you think the Voice would come to me? I would that every one could hear the Voice as I hear it. [http://www.stjoan-center.com/Trials/sec03.html Third public examination (24 February 1431)]; part of this testimony has sometimes been paraphrased: If I am not in the state of grace, may God put me there; and if I am, may God so keep me.

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„You say that you are my judge. I do not know if you are! But I tell you that you must take good care not to judge me wrongly, because you will put yourself in great danger.“

— Joan of Arc
Context: You say that you are my judge. I do not know if you are! But I tell you that you must take good care not to judge me wrongly, because you will put yourself in great danger. I warn you, so that if God punishes you for it, I would have done my duty by telling you! Jeanne's warning to Bishop Cauchon (15 March 1431)

„I was thirteen when I had a Voice from God for my help and guidance.“

— Joan of Arc
Context: I was thirteen when I had a Voice from God for my help and guidance. The first time that I heard this Voice, I was very much frightened; it was mid-day, in the summer, in my father's garden. I had not fasted the day before. I heard this Voice to my right, towards the Church; rarely do I hear it without its being accompanied also by a light. This light comes from the same side as the Voice. Generally it is a great light. Since I came into France I have often heard this Voice. … If I were in a wood, I could easily hear the Voice which came to me. It seemed to me to come from lips I should reverence. I believe it was sent me from God. When I heard it for the third time, I recognized that it was the Voice of an Angel. This Voice has always guarded me well, and I have always understood it; it instructed me to be good and to go often to Church; it told me it was necessary for me to come into France. You ask me under what form this Voice appeared to me? You will hear no more of it from me this time. It said to me two or three times a week: 'You must go into France.' My father knew nothing of my going. The Voice said to me: 'Go into France!' I could stay no longer. It said to me: 'Go, raise the siege which is being made before the City of Orleans. Go!' it added, 'to Robert de Baudricourt, Captain of Vaucouleurs: he will furnish you with an escort to accompany you.' And I replied that I was but a poor girl, who knew nothing of riding or fighting. I went to my uncle and said that I wished to stay near him for a time. I remained there eight days. I said to him, 'I must go to Vaucouleurs.' He took me there. When I arrived, I recognized Robert de Baudricourt, although I had never seen him. I knew him, thanks to my Voice, which made me recognize him. [http://www.stjoan-center.com/Trials/sec02.html Second public examination (22 February 1431)]

„The light comes at the same time as the Voice. … I will not tell you all; I have not leave; my oath does not touch on that.“

— Joan of Arc
Context: The light comes at the same time as the Voice. … I will not tell you all; I have not leave; my oath does not touch on that. My Voice is good and to be honored. I am not bound to answer you about it. I request that the points on which I do not now answer may be given me in writing. … You shall not know yet. There is a saying among children, that 'Sometimes one is hanged for speaking the truth.'" [She is asked : Do you know if you are in the grace of God? ] If I am not, may God place me there; if I am, may God so keep me. I should be the saddest in all the world if I knew that I were not in the grace of God. But if I were in a state of sin, do you think the Voice would come to me? I would that every one could hear the Voice as I hear it. [http://www.stjoan-center.com/Trials/sec03.html Third public examination (24 February 1431)]; part of this testimony has sometimes been paraphrased: If I am not in the state of grace, may God put me there; and if I am, may God so keep me.

„There is a saying among children, that 'Sometimes one is hanged for speaking the truth.'"“

— Joan of Arc
Context: The light comes at the same time as the Voice. … I will not tell you all; I have not leave; my oath does not touch on that. My Voice is good and to be honored. I am not bound to answer you about it. I request that the points on which I do not now answer may be given me in writing. … You shall not know yet. There is a saying among children, that 'Sometimes one is hanged for speaking the truth.'" [She is asked : Do you know if you are in the grace of God? ] If I am not, may God place me there; if I am, may God so keep me. I should be the saddest in all the world if I knew that I were not in the grace of God. But if I were in a state of sin, do you think the Voice would come to me? I would that every one could hear the Voice as I hear it. [http://www.stjoan-center.com/Trials/sec03.html Third public examination (24 February 1431)]; part of this testimony has sometimes been paraphrased: If I am not in the state of grace, may God put me there; and if I am, may God so keep me.

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„Alas! that my body, clean and whole, never been corrupted, today must be consumed and burnt to ashes!“

— Joan of Arc
As quoted by Jean Toutmouille during the retrial after her execution (5 March 1449), as quoted in Jeanne d'Arc, maid of Orleans, Deliverer of France (1902) by T. Douglas Murray

„About Jesus Christ and the Church, I simply know they're just one thing, and we shouldn't complicate the matter.“

— Joan of Arc
From the trial transcript, as quoted in The Catechism of the Catholic Church (1994)

„I am not afraid; I was born to do this.“

— Joan of Arc
As quoted in While We Wait: Spiritual and Practical Advice for Those Trying to Adopt (2009) by Heidi Schlumpf, p. 37