Frases de Herbert Spencer

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Herbert Spencer

Data de nascimento: 27. Abril 1820
Data de falecimento: 8. Dezembro 1903

Herbert Spencer foi um filósofo, biólogo e antropólogo inglês, bem como um dos representantes do liberalismo clássico.

Spencer foi um profundo admirador da obra de Charles Darwin. É dele a expressão "sobrevivência do mais apto", e em sua obra procurou aplicar as leis da evolução a todos os níveis da atividade humana. Spencer teve suas ideias enormemente distorcidas. Essas distorções lhe renderam a alcunha de "Pai do Darwinismo Social". Todavia, Spencer jamais utilizou este termo ou defendeu a morte de indivíduos "mais fracos" assim como foi um notável opositor de governos militares e autoritários, de qualquer forma de coletivismo, do colonialismo, do imperialismo e das guerras. Ele estudou o comportamento humano como um órgão biológico.

Encontra-se colaboração de sua autoria na revista A imprensa .

Faleceu em 8 de dezembro de 1903. Está sepultado no Cemitério de Highgate, Londres na Inglaterra.

Citações Herbert Spencer

„Ciência é o conhecimento organizado.“

—  Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer, filósofo inglês, conforme encontrado em Singh, Simon - Big Bang - Capítulo: "O que é ciência?" - Editora Record - 2006 - pág.: 459
Atribuídas

„A maioria das nossas satisfações vêm de fontes inesperadas“

—  Herbert Spencer

most of my pleasures have come from unexpected sources
Essays: scientific, political, and speculative, Volume 2‎ - Página 50 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=DaYIAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA50, Herbert Spencer - Williams and Norgate, 1868

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„A forma republicana de governo requer o tipo mais elevado da natureza humana - um tipo que presentemente não existe em lugar nenhum.“

—  Herbert Spencer

The Republican form of government is the highest form of government; but because of this it requires the highest type of human nature — a type nowhere at present existing.
Herbert Spencer on the Americans and the Americans on Herbert Spencer ...‎ - Página 18, Herbert Spencer - 1883

„Casamento: cerimônia em que se coloca uma aliança no dedo da mulher e outra no nariz do homem.“

—  Herbert Spencer

Marriage: A ceremony in which rings are put on the finger of the lady and through the nose of the gentleman
citado em "Reader's digest service", Volume 35‎ - Página 65, De Witt Wallace, Lila Acheson Wallace, Lila Bell Wallace - The Reader's Digest Association, 1939

„All evil results from the non-adaptation of constitution to conditions. This is true of everything that lives.“

—  Herbert Spencer, livro Social Statics

Part I, Ch. 2 : The Evanescence of Evil, § 1
Social Statics (1851)
Contexto: All evil results from the non-adaptation of constitution to conditions. This is true of everything that lives. Does a shrub dwindle in poor soil, or become sickly when deprived of light, or die outright if removed to a cold climate? it is because the harmony between its organization and its circumstances has been destroyed.

„To the clergy nothing is more obvious than that a state-church is just, and essential to the maintenance of religion. The sinecurist thinks himself rightly indignant at any disregard of his vested interests. And so on throughout society.“

—  Herbert Spencer, livro Social Statics

Pt. II, Ch. 16 : The Rights of Women
Social Statics (1851)
Contexto: Attila conceived himself to have a divine claim to the dominion of the earth: — the Spaniards subdued the Indians under plea of converting them to Christianity; hanging thirteen refractory ones in honour of Jesus Christ and his apostles: and we English justify our colonial aggressions by saying that the Creator intends the Anglo-Saxon race to people the world! An insatiate lust of conquest transmutes manslaying into a virtue; and, amongst more races than one, implacable revenge has made assassination a duty. A clever theft was praiseworthy amongst the Spartans; and it is equally so amongst Christians, provided it be on a sufficiently large scale. Piracy was heroism with Jason and his followers; was so also with the Norsemen; is so still with the Malays; and there is never wanting some golden fleece for a pretext. Amongst money-hunting people a man is commended in proportion to the number of hours he spends in business; in our day the rage for accumulation has apotheosized work; and even the miser is not without a code of morals by which to defend his parsimony. The ruling classes argue themselves into the belief that property should be represented rather than person — that the landed interest should preponderate. The pauper is thoroughly persuaded that he has a right to relief. The monks held printing to be an invention of the devil; and some of our modern sectaries regard their refractory brethren as under demoniacal possession. To the clergy nothing is more obvious than that a state-church is just, and essential to the maintenance of religion. The sinecurist thinks himself rightly indignant at any disregard of his vested interests. And so on throughout society.

„The supporters of the Development Hypothesis… can show that any existing species—animal or vegetable—when placed under conditions different from its previous ones, immediately begins to undergo certain changes fitting it for the new conditions. They can show that in successive generations these changes continue; until, ultimately, the new conditions become the natural ones.“

—  Herbert Spencer

The Development Hypothesis (1852)
Contexto: The supporters of the Development Hypothesis... can show that any existing species—animal or vegetable—when placed under conditions different from its previous ones, immediately begins to undergo certain changes fitting it for the new conditions. They can show that in successive generations these changes continue; until, ultimately, the new conditions become the natural ones. They can show that in cultivated plants, in domesticated animals, and in the several races of men, such alterations have taken place. They can show that the degrees of difference so produced are often, as in dogs, greater than those on which distinctions of species are in other cases founded.

„We have a priori reasons for believing that in every sentence there is some one order of words more effective than any other“

—  Herbert Spencer

Pt. I, sec. 3, "The Principle of Economy Applied to Sentences"
The Philosophy of Style (1852)
Contexto: We have a priori reasons for believing that in every sentence there is some one order of words more effective than any other; and that this order is the one which presents the elements of the proposition in the succession in which they may be most readily put together.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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