Frases de Herbert Spencer
Data de nascimento: 27. Abril 1820
Data de falecimento: 8. Dezembro 1903
Herbert Spencer foi um filósofo, biólogo e antropólogo inglês, bem como um dos representantes do liberalismo clássico.
Spencer foi um profundo admirador da obra de Charles Darwin. É dele a expressão "sobrevivência do mais apto", e em sua obra procurou aplicar as leis da evolução a todos os níveis da atividade humana. Spencer teve suas ideias enormemente distorcidas. Essas distorções lhe renderam a alcunha de "Pai do Darwinismo Social". Todavia, Spencer jamais utilizou este termo ou defendeu a morte de indivíduos "mais fracos" assim como foi um notável opositor de governos militares e autoritários, de qualquer forma de coletivismo, do colonialismo, do imperialismo e das guerras. Ele estudou o comportamento humano como um órgão biológico.
Encontra-se colaboração de sua autoria na revista A imprensa .
Faleceu em 8 de dezembro de 1903. Está sepultado no Cemitério de Highgate, Londres na Inglaterra.
Citações Herbert Spencer
most of my pleasures have come from unexpected sources
Essays: scientific, political, and speculative, Volume 2 - Página 50 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=DaYIAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA50, Herbert Spencer - Williams and Norgate, 1868
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Marriage: A ceremony in which rings are put on the finger of the lady and through the nose of the gentleman
citado em "Reader's digest service", Volume 35 - Página 65, De Witt Wallace, Lila Acheson Wallace, Lila Bell Wallace - The Reader's Digest Association, 1939
„A forma republicana de governo requer o tipo mais elevado da natureza humana - um tipo que presentemente não existe em lugar nenhum.“
The Republican form of government is the highest form of government; but because of this it requires the highest type of human nature — a type nowhere at present existing.
Herbert Spencer on the Americans and the Americans on Herbert Spencer ... - Página 18, Herbert Spencer - 1883
„All evil results from the non-adaptation of constitution to conditions. This is true of everything that lives.“
— Herbert Spencer, livro Social Statics
Part I, Ch. 2 : The Evanescence of Evil, § 1
Social Statics (1851)
Contexto: All evil results from the non-adaptation of constitution to conditions. This is true of everything that lives. Does a shrub dwindle in poor soil, or become sickly when deprived of light, or die outright if removed to a cold climate? it is because the harmony between its organization and its circumstances has been destroyed.
„The blindness of those who think it absurd to suppose that complex organic forms may have arisen by successive modifications out of simple ones becomes astonishing when we remember that complex organic forms are daily being thus produced.“
The Development Hypothesis (1852)
Contexto: The blindness of those who think it absurd to suppose that complex organic forms may have arisen by successive modifications out of simple ones becomes astonishing when we remember that complex organic forms are daily being thus produced. A tree differs from a seed immeasurably in every respect... Yet is the one changed in the course of a few years into the other: changed so gradually, that at no moment can it be said — Now the seed ceases to be, and the tree exists.
„He cannot be coerced into political combination without a breach of the law of equal freedom; he can withdraw from it without committing any such breach; and he has therefore a right so to withdraw.“
— Herbert Spencer, livro Social Statics
Pt. III, Ch. 19 : The Right to Ignore the State, § 1 http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/273#lf0331_label_200
Social Statics (1851)
Contexto: As a corollary to the proposition that all institutions must be subordinated to the law of equal freedom, we cannot choose but admit the right of the citizen to adopt a condition of voluntary outlawry. If every man has freedom to do all that he wills, provided he infringes not the equal freedom of any other man, then he is free to drop connection with the state — to relinquish its protection, and to refuse paying towards its support. It is self-evident that in so behaving he in no way trenches upon the liberty of others; for his position is a passive one; and whilst passive he cannot become an aggressor. It is equally selfevident that he cannot be compelled to continue one of a political corporation, without a breach of the moral law, seeing that citizenship involves payment of taxes; and the taking away of a man’s property against his will, is an infringement of his rights. Government being simply an agent employed in common by a number of individuals to secure to them certain advantages, the very nature of the connection implies that it is for each to say whether he will employ such an agent or not. If any one of them determines to ignore this mutual-safety confederation, nothing can be said except that he loses all claim to its good offices, and exposes himself to the danger of maltreatment — a thing he is quite at liberty to do if he likes. He cannot be coerced into political combination without a breach of the law of equal freedom; he can withdraw from it without committing any such breach; and he has therefore a right so to withdraw.
„If there be an order in which the human race has mastered its various kinds of knowledge, there will arise in every child an aptitude to acquire these kinds of knowledge in the same order.“
Education: Intellectual, Moral, and Physical (1861)
Contexto: If there be an order in which the human race has mastered its various kinds of knowledge, there will arise in every child an aptitude to acquire these kinds of knowledge in the same order. So that even were the order intrinsically indifferent, it would facilitate education to lead the individual mind through the steps traversed by the general mind. But the order is not intrinsically indifferent; and hence the fundamental reason why education should be a repetition of civilization in little.<!--p.76