Frases de Clarence Darrow

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Clarence Darrow

Data de nascimento: 18. Abril 1857
Data de falecimento: 13. Março 1938
Outros nomes: Clarence Seward Darrow

Clarence Darrow foi um advogado americano, ficou conhecido por ter defendido os adolescentes assassinos Leopold and Loeb no seu julgamento pelo assassinato de Bobby Franks e por ter defendido John T. Scopes no julgamento que ficou conhecido como "Monkey Trial", se opondo ao defensor fundamentalista cristão William Jennings Bryan. Ele seguiu conhecido por sua astúcia, compaixão e agnosticismo que o marcaram como um dos mais famosos advogados americanos e defensores dos direitos civis.

Darrow começou sua carreira como advogado em Youngstown, Ohio, onde ele foi primeiro contratado como parte . Em seguida mudou-se para Chicago, Illinois, onde logo se tornou um advogado corporativo para a companhia de trem. Seu próximo passo foi "cruzar os trilhos", ao mudar-se para o lado de Eugene V. Debs, o líder da American Railway Union na greve Pullman de 1894. Darrow abriu mão de seu cargo na corporação propositalmente, no intuito de representar Debs, fazendo um considerável sacrifício financeiro, mesmo que seu trabalho não tenha sido pro bono .

Darrow defendeu Haywood, o líder radical da "Industrial Worker of the World" e da "Western Federation of Miners" , que havia sido acusado de estar envolvido no assassinato do governador de Idaho. Seu próximo caso notável foi a defesa dos Irmãos MacNamara, que haviam sido acusados de dinamitar o prédio do Los Angeles Times, durante o ressentido tumulto sobre a abertura das lojas no sul da Califórnia. Darrow convenceu eles a declararem inocência com o intuito de evitar a pena de morte. Por conta deste caso foram feitas acusações contra Darrow em duas cortes, por ter tentado pagar proprina para um jurado. Ele foi absolvido.

Por consequência, Darrow abandonou a defesa de trabalhadores para se devotar a luta contra a pena de morte, a qual ele acreditava conflitar com o progresso humanitário. Em mais de 100 casos Darrow só perder um caso de assassinato em Chicago. Ele ficou renomado por comover os jurados e até mesmo o juiz, levando-os às lágrimas com sua eloquência. Apesar de sua formação questionável , Darrow tinha um intelecto muito arguto, frequentemente oculto sob sua aparência descuidada e humilde. Ao contrário da crença popular americana, ele não se opunha aos princípios religiosos e sim à intolerância e ignorância que ele dizia serem pregadas por seus praticantes mais radicais, tais como os fundamentalistas.

Uma história conta que um cliente, após vencer o caso, lhe disse, "Como eu posso demonstrar meus agradecimentos, Sr. Darrow?", ao que Darrow teria replicado: "Desde que os Fenícios inventaram o dinheiro, só existe uma resposta a esta sua pergunta". No entanto, a busca de Darrow por fortuna foi superada por seu descaso. Ele frequentemente aceitou causas pro bono de acusados que não possuíam meios para pagar advogados.

Durante o julgamento de Leopold e Loeb em 1924, se comentava que Darrow teria recebido "um milhão de doláres" para defendê-los e os cidadãos americanos ficaram ultrajados por sua traição. Na verdade, Darrow e seus dois ajudantes ganharam cem mil doláres para dividir igualmente após terem procurado insistentemente a rica família Loeb por vários meses.

Em 1925 ele defendeu Ossian Sweet, um médico negro de Detroit, pelo assassinato a tiros de um membro branco de um tumulto. O tumulto reuniu pelo menos 1.000 pessoas do lado de fora da casa de Sweet para forçá-lo a trocar de bairro. Darrow referia-se ao julgamento como uma de suas melhores defesas, que culminou com o lendário argumento final de oito apaixonadas horas e o absolvimento do Dr. Sweet por unanimidade entre os onze jurados. O fato chocou a cidade.

Depois do julgamento Scopes, em 1925, Clarence Darrow aposentou-se da prática, voltando apenas ocasionalmente para defender casos tais como o julgamento Massie, em 1934, no Havaí.

Em 1903 foi publicado em Chicago, pela editora McClurg and Company, um livro com as lembranças da infância de Darrow, intitulado Farmington.

Darrow dividia o escritório com Edgar Lee Masters, que tornou-se mais famoso por seus poemas, em particular pela Spoon River Anthology, que pelas causas advogadas. Darrow também teve Eugene V. Debs como sócio, após sua soltura da prisão.

Após sua morte foi criado um monólogo que incluia reminiscências sobre sua carreira. Originalmente encenado por Henry Fonda, muitos atores, incluindo Leslie Nielsen, fizeram o papel de Darrow na peça. Os julgamentos Scopes Monkey também foram ficcionalizados em outra peça, intitulada Inherit the Wind, que acabou por virar um filme.

Citações Clarence Darrow

„Quando eu era criança, disseram-me que qualquer um poderia ser Presidente da República. Estou começando a acreditar.“

—  Clarence Darrow

citado em "Citações da Cultura Universal" - Página 23, Alberto J. G. Villamarín, Editora AGE Ltda, 2002, ISBN 8574970891, 9788574970899

„Todos os homens fazem o melhor que podem, mas nenhum enfrenta a vida honestamente e poucos heroicamente.“

—  Clarence Darrow

All men do the best they can. But none meet life honestly and few heroically.
citado em Infidels and Heretics : An Agnostic's Anthology (1929) editado por Clarence Darrow e Wallace Rice, p. 206

„A primeira parte de nossas vidas é arruinada por nossos pais, a segunda por nossos filhos.“

—  Clarence Darrow

The first half of our lives is ruined by our parents, and the second half by our children
citado em "The dictionary of humorous quotations‎" - Página 62, de Evan Esar - Doubleday, 1949 - 270 páginas

„Não acredito em Deus, pois não acredito na Mãe Ganso.“

—  Clarence Darrow

Mamãe Ganso (Mother Goose) - referência à fictícia autora de uma série muito popular de contos infantis publicada em Londres no século XVIII.

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„If there is to be any permanent improvement in man and any better social order, it must come mainly from the education and humanizing of man.“

—  Clarence Darrow

Crime : Its Cause And Treatment (1922) Ch. 36 "Remedies"
Contexto: It is often said that the accused should be given an immediate trial; that this and subsequent proceedings should not be hindered by delay; that the uncertainties of punishment furnish the criminal with the hope of escape and therefore do not give the community the benefit of the terror that comes with the certainty of punishment that could prevent crime. I can see no basis in logic or experience for this suggestion. It is based on the theory that punishment is not only a deterrent to crime, but the main deterrent. It comes from the idea that the criminal is distinct from the rest of mankind, that vengeance should be sure and speedy and that then crime would be prevented. If this were true and the only consideration to prevent crime, then the old torture chamber and the ancient prison with all its hopelessness and horror should be restored. Logic, humanity and experience would protest against this. If there is to be any permanent improvement in man and any better social order, it must come mainly from the education and humanizing of man. I am quite certain that the more the question of crime and its treatment is studied the less faith men have in punishment.

„One cannot live through a long stretch of years without forming some philosophy of life.“

—  Clarence Darrow

Ch. 1 "Before The Beginning"
The Story of My Life (1932)
Contexto: One cannot live through a long stretch of years without forming some philosophy of life. As one journeys along he gains experiences and even some ideas. Accumulated opinions and philosophy may be more important to others than the bare facts about how he lived, so my ambition is not so much to relate the occurrences as to record the ideas that life has forced me to accept; and, after all, thoughts, impressions and feelings are really life itself. I should like to think that these reflections might make existence a trifle easier for some of those who may chance to read this story.

„Some of you say religion makes people happy. So does laughing gas. So does whiskey.“

—  Clarence Darrow

In a debate with religious leaders in Kansas City, as quoted in a eulogy for Darrow by Emanuel Haldeman-Julius (1938)
Contexto: Do you, good people, believe that Adam and Eve were created in the Garden of Eden and that they were forbidden to eat from the tree of knowledge? I do. The church has always been afraid of that tree. It still is afraid of knowledge. Some of you say religion makes people happy. So does laughing gas. So does whiskey. I believe in the brain of man. I'm not worried about my soul.

„It is not for the world to judge, but to crown them all alike. Each and all lived out their own being, did their work in their own way, and carried a reluctant, stupid humanity to greater possibilities and grander heights.“

—  Clarence Darrow

Voltaire (1916)
Contexto: Valiantly he fought on every intellectual battlefield. True he bowed and dodged and lied over and over again, that he still might live and work. Many of his admirers cannot forgive this in the great Voltaire. Rather they would have had him, like Bruno and Servetus, remain steadfast to his faith while his living body was consumed with flames. But, Voltaire was Voltaire, Bruno was Bruno, and Servetus was Servetus. It is not for the world to judge, but to crown them all alike. Each and all lived out their own being, did their work in their own way, and carried a reluctant, stupid humanity to greater possibilities and grander heights.

„To say that the universe was here last year, or millions of years ago, does not explain its origin. This is still a mystery. As to the question of the origin of things, man can only wonder and doubt and guess.“

—  Clarence Darrow

Why I Am An Agnostic (1929)
Contexto: To say that God made the universe gives us no explanation of the beginnings of things. If we are told that God made the universe, the question immediately arises: Who made God? Did he always exist, or was there some power back of that? Did he create matter out of nothing, or is his existence coextensive with matter? The problem is still there. What is the origin of it all? If, on the other hand, one says that the universe was not made by God, that it always existed, he has the same difficulty to confront. To say that the universe was here last year, or millions of years ago, does not explain its origin. This is still a mystery. As to the question of the origin of things, man can only wonder and doubt and guess.

„Any one who thinks is an agnostic about something, otherwise he must believe that he is possessed of all knowledge. And the proper place for such a person is in the madhouse or the home for the feeble-minded.“

—  Clarence Darrow

Why I Am An Agnostic (1929)
Contexto: An agnostic is a doubter. The word is generally applied to those who doubt the verity of accepted religious creeds of faiths. Everyone is an agnostic as to the beliefs or creeds they do not accept. Catholics are agnostic to the Protestant creeds, and the Protestants are agnostic to the Catholic creed. Any one who thinks is an agnostic about something, otherwise he must believe that he is possessed of all knowledge. And the proper place for such a person is in the madhouse or the home for the feeble-minded. In a popular way, in the western world, an agnostic is one who doubts or disbelieves the main tenets of the Christian faith.

„The purpose of life is living. Men and women should get the most they can out of their lives.“

—  Clarence Darrow

As quoted in Infidels and Heretics : An Agnostic's Anthology (1929) edited by Clarence Darrow and Wallace Rice, pp. 206 - 207
Contexto: The purpose of life is living. Men and women should get the most they can out of their lives. The smallest, tiniest intellect may be quite as valuable to society as the largest. It may be still more valuable to itself: it may have all the capacity for enjoyment that the wisest has. The purpose of man is like the purpose of the pollywog — to wriggle along as far as he can without dying; or to hang on until death takes him.

„I am an agnostic as to the question of God.“

—  Clarence Darrow

Why I Am An Agnostic (1929)
Contexto: I am an agnostic as to the question of God. I think that it is impossible for the human mind to believe in an object or thing unless it can form a mental picture of such object or thing. Since man ceased to worship openly an anthropomorphic God and talked vaguely and not intelligently about some force in the universe, higher than man, that is responsible for the existence of man and the universe, he cannot be said to believe in God. One cannot believe in a force excepting as a force that pervades matter and is not an individual entity. To believe in a thing, an image of the thing must be stamped on the mind. If one is asked if he believes in such an animal as a camel, there immediately arises in his mind an image of the camel. This image has come from experience or knowledge of the animal gathered in some way or other. No such image comes, or can come, with the idea of a God who is described as a force.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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