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Arthur Wellesley, 1.º Duque de Wellington

Data de nascimento: 1. Maio 1769
Data de falecimento: 14. Setembro 1852
Outros nomes:Arthur Wellesley, I duca di Wellington,Duca di Wellington

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Arthur Colley Wellesley, 1.º Duque de Wellington, KG GCB GCH PC FRS foi um marechal e político britânico, primeiro-ministro do Reino Unido por duas vezes.

Wellesley foi nomeado como alferes no exército britânico em 1787. Servindo na Irlanda como ajudante-de-campo para dois sucessivos Lordes Tenentes da Irlanda, ele também foi eleito como membro da Câmara dos Comuns do parlamento irlandês. Como coronel em 1796, Wellesley esteve em ação na Holanda e depois na Índia, onde ele lutou na Quarta Guerra Anglo-Maiçor na batalha de Seringapatão. Ele foi nomeado governador de Seringapatão e Maiçor, em 1799, e como major-general recém-nomeado obteve uma vitória decisiva sobre a Confederação Marata na batalha de Assaye em 1803.

Wellesley aumentou sua relevância como um general durante a Guerra Peninsular das Guerras Napoleônicas, e foi promovido ao posto de marechal de campo depois de liderar as forças aliadas na vitória contra os franceses na batalha de Vitória em 1813. Após o exílio de Napoleão Bonaparte em 1814, atuou como embaixador na França e foi-lhe concedido um ducado. Durante o Governo dos Cem Dias em 1815, ele comandou o exército aliado que, junto com um exército prussiano sob Blücher, derrotaram Napoleão na batalha de Waterloo. O registro de batalha de Wellesley é exemplar, em última análise, participou em cerca de 60 batalhas durante o curso de sua carreira militar.Wellesley era famoso por seu estilo de adaptação defensiva de guerra, e um extenso planejamento antes de batalhas, o que lhe permitia escolher o campo de batalha e forçar o inimigo a vir a ele, que resultaram em várias vitórias contra uma força numericamente superior, minimizando suas próprias perdas. Ele é considerado um dos maiores comandantes de defesa de todos os tempos, e muitas das suas táticas e planos de batalha ainda são estudadas em academias militares ao redor do mundo.

Ele foi duas vezes o primeiro-ministro pelo partido tory e supervisionou a aprovação do Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829. Ele foi primeiro-ministro entre 1828 e 1830 e serviu brevemente em 1834. Foi incapaz de impedir a aprovação do Reform Act 1832 mas continuou como uma das principais figuras na Câmara dos Lordes até à sua aposentadoria. Ele permaneceu comandante em chefe do Exército Britânico até à data da sua morte.

Citações Arthur Wellesley, 1.º Duque de Wellington

„The history of a battle, is not unlike the history of a ball. Some individuals may recollect all the little events of which the great result is the battle won or lost, but no individual can recollect the order in which, or the exact moment at which, they occurred, which makes all the difference as to their value or importance.“

— Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Context: The history of a battle, is not unlike the history of a ball. Some individuals may recollect all the little events of which the great result is the battle won or lost, but no individual can recollect the order in which, or the exact moment at which, they occurred, which makes all the difference as to their value or importance... Letter to John Croker (8 August 1815), as quoted in The History of England from the Accession of James II (1848) by Thomas Babington Macaulay, [http://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/hst/european/TheHistoryofEnglandfromtheAccessionofJamesIIVol1/chap5.html Volume I Chapter 5], p. 180.; and in The Waterloo Letters (1891) edited by H. T. Sibome

„Napoleon has humbugged me, by God“

— Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Context: Napoleon has humbugged me, by God; he has gained twenty-four hours' march on me. At the Duchess of Richmond's ball (15 June 1815), as quoted in [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/9460 Camps, Quarters, and Casual Places] (1896) by Archibald Forbes, quotes Captain Bowles account and citing the Letters of the First Earl of Malmesbury.

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„It has been a damned nice thing — the nearest run thing you ever saw in your life.“

— Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Context: It has been a damned serious business... Blucher and I have lost 30,000 men. It has been a damned nice thing — the nearest run thing you ever saw in your life. … By God! I don't think it would have been done if I had not been there. Remark to Thomas Creevey (18 June 1815), using the word nice in an older sense of "uncertain, delicately balanced", about the Battle of Waterloo. Creevy, a civilian, got a public interview with Wellington at headquarters, and quoted the remark in his book Creevey Papers (1903), in Ch. X, on p. 236; the phrase "a damned nice thing" has sometimes been paraphrased as "a damn close-run thing."

„Believe me, nothing except a battle lost can be half so melancholy as a battle won: the bravery of my troops hitherto saved me from the greater evil; but to win such a battle as this of Waterloo, at the expens of so many gallant friends, could only be termed a heavy misfortune but for the result to the public.“

— Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Context: My heart is broken by the terrible loss I have sustained in my old friends and companions and my poor soldiers. Believe me, nothing except a battle lost can be half so melancholy as a battle won: the bravery of my troops hitherto saved me from the greater evil; but to win such a battle as this of Waterloo, at the expens of so many gallant friends, could only be termed a heavy misfortune but for the result to the public. Letter from the field of Waterloo (June 1815), as quoted in Decisive Battles of the World (1899) by Edward Shepherd Creasy. Quoted too in Memorable Battles in English History: Where Fought, why Fought, and Their Results; with the Military Lives of the Commanders by William Henry Davenport Adams; Editor Griffith and Farran, 1863. p. 400.

„It has been a damned serious business“

— Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Context: It has been a damned serious business... Blucher and I have lost 30,000 men. It has been a damned nice thing — the nearest run thing you ever saw in your life. … By God! I don't think it would have been done if I had not been there. Remark to Thomas Creevey (18 June 1815), using the word nice in an older sense of "uncertain, delicately balanced", about the Battle of Waterloo. Creevy, a civilian, got a public interview with Wellington at headquarters, and quoted the remark in his book Creevey Papers (1903), in Ch. X, on p. 236; the phrase "a damned nice thing" has sometimes been paraphrased as "a damn close-run thing."

„I believe I forgot to tell you I was made a Duke.“

— Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Postscript to a letter to his brother Henry Wellesley (22 May 1814), published in Supplementary Despatches and Memoranda of Field Marshal Arthur, Duke of Wellington, K. G.: South of France, embassy to Paris, and Congress of Vienna, 1814-1815. Editors: Arthur Richard Wellesley Duke of Wellington, Arthur Richard Wellesley Wellington (2d Duke of). Editor: J. Murray, 1862. Origin of the original: Universidad de Michigan. Digitized: 28 November 2006. p. 100. Arthur Wellesley, 2nd Duke of Wellington

„Give me night or give me Blücher“

— Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Comment made at a crisis point during during Battle of Waterloo at about 5.45 pm on 18 June. The Military Maxims of Napoleon by Napoleon Bonaparte, David G. Chandler, William E. Cairnes , [http://books.google.co.uk/books?um=1&spell=1&q=%22Give+me%0D%0Anight+or+give+me+Blucher%22+was+the+Duke%27s+prayer+at+about+5.45+pm+on+18+June.%0D%0Anight+or+give+me+Blucher%22+wellington&btnG=Search+Books p. 143] Alternatively wording may have been "Night or the Prussians must come": quoted by David Howarth, page 162, "Waterloo: Day of Battle", ISBN=0-88365-273-0

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„[I don't] care a twopenny damn what [becomes] of the ashes of Napoleon Bonaparte.“

— Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
As quoted in The Times [London] (9 October 1944); this attribution probably originates in a letter by Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay (6 March 1849), in which he states "How they settle the matter I care not, as the duke says, one twopenny damn."

„The French system of conscription brings together a fair sample of all classes; ours is composed of the scum of the earth — the mere scum of the earth. It is only wonderful that we should be able to make so much out of them afterwards.“

— Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Speaking about soldiers in the British Army, 4 November 1813 A French army is composed very differently from ours. The conscription calls out a share of every class — no matter whether your son or my son — all must march; but our friends — I may say it in this room — are the very scum of the earth. People talk of their enlisting from their fine military feeling — all stuff — no such thing. Some of our men enlist from having got bastard children — some for minor offences — many more for drink; but you can hardly conceive such a set brought together, and it really is wonderful that we should have made them the fine fellows they are. Notes for 11 November 1831.

„I have no small talk and Peel has no manners.“

— Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
As quoted in Collections and Recollections (1898) by G. W. E. Russell, ch.14.

„During the Peninsula War, I heard a Portuguese general address his troops before a battle with the words, "Remember men, you are Portuguese!"“

— Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Wellington's reply when asked, late in his life, what was the most inane remark he had ever heard, as quoted in Journals of Alec Guinness (February 1998) by Alec Guinness

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„If you believe that you will believe anything.“

— Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
In reply to a man who greeted him in the street with the words "Mr. Jones, I believe?", as quoted in Wellington — The Years of the Sword (1969) by Elizabeth Longford.

„Hard pounding this, gentlemen; let's see who will pound longest.“

— Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
At the Battle of Waterloo (18 June 1815), as quoted by Sir Walter Scott, in Paul's Letters to His Kinsfolk (1815).

„I never saw so many shocking bad hats in my life.“

— Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
When asked what he thought of the first Reformed Parliament, as quoted in Words on Wellington (1889) by Sir William Fraser, p. 12.

„We always have been, we are, and I hope that we always shall be, detested in France.“

— Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
As quoted in Wellington and His Friends (1965) by Gerald Wellesley, 7th Duke of Wellington, p. 138, and in [http://www.economist.com/printedition/displayStory.cfm?story_id=4079435 The Economist (16 June 2005)]

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