Frases de Arthur Stanley Eddington

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Arthur Stanley Eddington

Data de nascimento: 28. Dezembro 1882
Data de falecimento: 22. Novembro 1944
Outros nomes: Sir Arthur Eddington, Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington

Arthur Stanley Eddington, OM foi um astrofísico britânico do início do século XX.

O limite de Eddington foi assim chamado em sua homenagem.

Eddington é famoso pelo seu trabalho sobre a Teoria da Relatividade. Eddington escreveu um artigo em 1919, Report on the relativity theory of gravitation, que anunciou a Teoria Geral da Relatividade de Einstein para o mundo anglófono. Devido à Primeira Guerra Mundial, os novos desenvolvimentos da ciência alemã não eram muito bem conhecidos no Reino Unido.

Citações Arthur Stanley Eddington

„It remains a real world if there is a background to the symbols“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Science and the Unseen World (1929)
Contexto: It remains a real world if there is a background to the symbols—an unknown quantity which the mathematical symbol x stands for. We think we are not wholly cut off from this background. It is to this background that our own personality and consciousness belong, and those spiritual aspects of our nature not to be described by any symbolism... to which mathematical physics has hitherto restricted itself.<!--III, p.37-38

„Clearly a statement cannot be tested by observation unless it is an assertion about the results of observation. Every item of physical knowledge must therefore be an assertion of what has been or would be the result of carrying out a specified observational procedure.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

The Philosophy of Physical Science (1938)
Contexto: For the truth of the conclusions of physical science, observation is the supreme Court of Appeal. It does not follow that every item which we confidently accept as physical knowledge has actually been certified by the Court; our confidence is that it would be certified by the Court if it were submitted. But it does follow that every item of physical knowledge is of a form which might be submitted to the Court. It must be such that we can specify (although it may be impracticable to carry out) an observational procedure which would decide whether it is true or not. Clearly a statement cannot be tested by observation unless it is an assertion about the results of observation. Every item of physical knowledge must therefore be an assertion of what has been or would be the result of carrying out a specified observational procedure. <!-- p. 9

„I may attempt is to dispel the feeling that in using“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Science and the Unseen World (1929)
Contexto: What I may attempt is to dispel the feeling that in using the eye of the body or the eye of the soul, and incorporating what is thereby revealed in our conception of reality, we are doing something irrational and disobeying the leading of truth which as scientists we are pledged to serve.<!--IV, p.49

„Only here and there does it arise to the level of consciousness, but from such islands proceeds all knowledge. The latter includes our knowledge of the physical world.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Fonte: The Nature of the Physical World (1928), Ch. 13 Reality
Contexto: The mind-stuff is not spread in space and time. But we must presume that in some other way or aspect it can be differentiated into parts. Only here and there does it arise to the level of consciousness, but from such islands proceeds all knowledge. The latter includes our knowledge of the physical world. <!-- p. 277

„Science has an important part to play in our everyday existence“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Science and the Unseen World (1929)
Contexto: Science has an important part to play in our everyday existence, and there is far too much neglect of science; but its intention is to supplement not to supplant the familiar outlook.<!--VIII, p.83

„The scientific answer is relevant so far as concerns the sense-impressions… For the rest the human spirit must turn to the unseen world to which it itself belongs.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Science and the Unseen World (1929)
Contexto: The scientific answer is relevant so far as concerns the sense-impressions... For the rest the human spirit must turn to the unseen world to which it itself belongs.<!--IV, p.43

„He arrives at two generalisations: No sea-creature is less than two inches long. (2) All sea-creatures have gills. These are both true of his catch, and he assumes tentatively that they will remain true however often he repeats it.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

The Philosophy of Physical Science (1938)
Contexto: Let us suppose that an ichthyologist is exploring the life of the ocean. He casts a net into the water and brings up a fishy assortment. Surveying his catch, he proceeds in the usual manner of a scientist to systematise what it reveals. He arrives at two generalisations: No sea-creature is less than two inches long. (2) All sea-creatures have gills. These are both true of his catch, and he assumes tentatively that they will remain true however often he repeats it.
In applying this analogy, the catch stands for the body of knowledge which constitutes physical science, and the net for the sensory and intellectual equipment which we use in obtaining it. The casting of the net corresponds to observation; for knowledge which has not been or could not be obtained by observation is not admitted into physical science.
An onlooker may object that the first generalisation is wrong. "There are plenty of sea-creatures under two inches long, only your net is not adapted to catch them." The icthyologist dismisses this objection contemptuously. "Anything uncatchable by my net is ipso facto outside the scope of icthyological knowledge. In short, what my net can't catch isn't fish." Or — to translate the analogy — "If you are not simply guessing, you are claiming a knowledge of the physical universe discovered in some other way than by the methods of physical science, and admittedly unverifiable by such methods. You are a metaphysician. Bah!"

„In the world of physics we watch a shadowgraph performance of the drama of familiar life.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Introduction
The Nature of the Physical World (1928)
Contexto: In physics we have outgrown archer and apple-pie definitions of the fundamental symbols. To a request to explain what an electron really is supposed to be we can only answer, "It is part of the A B C of physics".
The external world of physics has thus become a world of shadows. In removing our illusions we have removed the substance, for indeed we have seen that substance is one of the greatest of our illusions. Later perhaps we may inquire whether in our zeal to cut out all that is unreal we may not have used the knife too ruthlessly. Perhaps, indeed, reality is a child which cannot survive without its nurse illusion. But if so, that is of little concern to the scientist, who has good and sufficient reasons for pursuing his investigations in the world of shadows and is content to leave to the philosopher the determination of its exact status in regard to reality. In the world of physics we watch a shadowgraph performance of the drama of familiar life. The shadow of my elbow rests on the shadow table as the shadow ink flows over the shadow paper. It is all symbolic, and as a symbol the physicist leaves it. Then comes the alchemist Mind who transmutes the symbols. The sparsely spread nuclei of electric force become a tangible solid; their restless agitation becomes the warmth of summer; the octave of aethereal vibrations becomes a gorgeous rainbow. Nor does the alchemy stop here. In the transmuted world new significances arise which are scarcely to be traced in the world of symbols; so that it becomes a world of beauty and purpose — and, alas, suffering and evil.
The frank realisation that physical science is concerned with a world of shadows is one of the most significant of recent advances.

„However closely we may associate thought with the physical machinery of the brain, the connection is dropped as irrelevant as soon as we consider the fundamental property of thought—that it may be correct or incorrect. …that involves recognising a domain of the other type of law—laws which ought to be kept, but may be broken.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Science and the Unseen World (1929)
Contexto: However closely we may associate thought with the physical machinery of the brain, the connection is dropped as irrelevant as soon as we consider the fundamental property of thought—that it may be correct or incorrect.... that involves recognising a domain of the other type of law—laws which ought to be kept, but may be broken.<!--V, p.57-58

„It is to this background that our own personality and consciousness belong, and those spiritual aspects of our nature not to be described by any symbolism… to which mathematical physics has hitherto restricted itself.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Science and the Unseen World (1929)
Contexto: It remains a real world if there is a background to the symbols—an unknown quantity which the mathematical symbol x stands for. We think we are not wholly cut off from this background. It is to this background that our own personality and consciousness belong, and those spiritual aspects of our nature not to be described by any symbolism... to which mathematical physics has hitherto restricted itself.<!--III, p.37-38

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„We have found a strange foot-print on the shores of the unknown.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Space, Time and Gravitation (1920)
Contexto: We have found a strange foot-print on the shores of the unknown. We have devised profound theories, one after another, to account for its origins. At last, we have succeeded in reconstructing the creature that made the footprint. And lo! It is our own.<!--p.201

„We are no longer tempted to condemn the spiritual aspects of our nature as illusory because of their lack of concreteness.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Science and the Unseen World (1929)
Contexto: We are no longer tempted to condemn the spiritual aspects of our nature as illusory because of their lack of concreteness.<!--III, p.33

„The theory of the "expanding universe" might also be called the theory of the "shrinking atom".“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

The Expanding Universe (1933)
Contexto: All change is relative. The universe is expanding relatively to our common material standards; our material standards are shrinking relatively to the size of the universe. The theory of the "expanding universe" might also be called the theory of the "shrinking atom". <...>

„The exploration of the external world by the methods of physical science leads not to a concrete reality but to a shadow world of symbols, beneath which those methods are unadapted for penetrating.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Science and the Unseen World (1929)
Contexto: The exploration of the external world by the methods of physical science leads not to a concrete reality but to a shadow world of symbols, beneath which those methods are unadapted for penetrating.<!--VII, p.73

„The external world of physics has thus become a world of shadows. In removing our illusions we have removed the substance, for indeed we have seen that substance is one of the greatest of our illusions.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Introduction
The Nature of the Physical World (1928)
Contexto: In physics we have outgrown archer and apple-pie definitions of the fundamental symbols. To a request to explain what an electron really is supposed to be we can only answer, "It is part of the A B C of physics".
The external world of physics has thus become a world of shadows. In removing our illusions we have removed the substance, for indeed we have seen that substance is one of the greatest of our illusions. Later perhaps we may inquire whether in our zeal to cut out all that is unreal we may not have used the knife too ruthlessly. Perhaps, indeed, reality is a child which cannot survive without its nurse illusion. But if so, that is of little concern to the scientist, who has good and sufficient reasons for pursuing his investigations in the world of shadows and is content to leave to the philosopher the determination of its exact status in regard to reality. In the world of physics we watch a shadowgraph performance of the drama of familiar life. The shadow of my elbow rests on the shadow table as the shadow ink flows over the shadow paper. It is all symbolic, and as a symbol the physicist leaves it. Then comes the alchemist Mind who transmutes the symbols. The sparsely spread nuclei of electric force become a tangible solid; their restless agitation becomes the warmth of summer; the octave of aethereal vibrations becomes a gorgeous rainbow. Nor does the alchemy stop here. In the transmuted world new significances arise which are scarcely to be traced in the world of symbols; so that it becomes a world of beauty and purpose — and, alas, suffering and evil.
The frank realisation that physical science is concerned with a world of shadows is one of the most significant of recent advances.

„Objections to religious mysticism lose their force if they can equally be turned against natural mysticism.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Science and the Unseen World (1929)
Contexto: Objections to religious mysticism lose their force if they can equally be turned against natural mysticism.<!--IV, p.47

„Symbolically it is the end, but looking behind the symbolism it is the beginning.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Science and the Unseen World (1929)
Contexto: Our story of evolution ended with a stirring in the brain-organ of the latest of Nature's experiments; but that stirring of consciousness transmutes the whole story and gives meaning to its symbolism. Symbolically it is the end, but looking behind the symbolism it is the beginning.<!--III, p.38

„The mind has an outlook which transcends the natural law by which it functions.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Science and the Unseen World (1929)
Contexto: The mind has an outlook which transcends the natural law by which it functions.<!--V, p.56

„I think it is not irreligion but a tidiness of mind, which rebels against the idea of permeating scientific research with a religious implication.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Science and the Unseen World (1929)
Contexto: I think it is not irreligion but a tidiness of mind, which rebels against the idea of permeating scientific research with a religious implication.<!--II, p.24-25

„Our system of philosophy is itself on trial; it must stand or fall according as it is broad enough to find room for this experience as an element of life.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington

Science and the Unseen World (1929)
Contexto: Our system of philosophy is itself on trial; it must stand or fall according as it is broad enough to find room for this experience as an element of life.<!--IV, p.46

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