Frases de Arthur Stanley Eddington

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Arthur Stanley Eddington

Data de nascimento: 28. Dezembro 1882
Data de falecimento: 22. Novembro 1944
Outros nomes:Sir Arthur Eddington, Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington

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Arthur Stanley Eddington, OM foi um astrofísico britânico do início do século XX.

O limite de Eddington foi assim chamado em sua homenagem.

Eddington é famoso pelo seu trabalho sobre a Teoria da Relatividade. Eddington escreveu um artigo em 1919, Report on the relativity theory of gravitation, que anunciou a Teoria Geral da Relatividade de Einstein para o mundo anglófono. Devido à Primeira Guerra Mundial, os novos desenvolvimentos da ciência alemã não eram muito bem conhecidos no Reino Unido.

Citações Arthur Stanley Eddington

„Never mind what two tons refers to. What is it?“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: Never mind what two tons refers to. What is it? How has it entered in so definite a way into our exprerience? Two tons is the reading of the pointer when the elephant was placed on a weighing machine. Let us pass on. … And so we see that the poetry fades out of the problem, and by the time the serious application of exact science begins we are left only with pointer readings. Ch. 7 Pointer Readings <!-- p. 252 -->

„However closely we may associate thought with the physical machinery of the brain, the connection is dropped as irrelevant as soon as we consider the fundamental property of thought—that it may be correct or incorrect. ...that involves recognising a domain of the other type of law—laws which ought to be kept, but may be broken.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: However closely we may associate thought with the physical machinery of the brain, the connection is dropped as irrelevant as soon as we consider the fundamental property of thought—that it may be correct or incorrect.... that involves recognising a domain of the other type of law—laws which ought to be kept, but may be broken.<!--V, p.57-58

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„We have found a strange foot-print on the shores of the unknown.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: We have found a strange foot-print on the shores of the unknown. We have devised profound theories, one after another, to account for its origins. At last, we have succeeded in reconstructing the creature that made the footprint. And lo! It is our own.<!--p.201

„Our story of evolution ended with a stirring in the brain-organ of the latest of Nature's experiments“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: Our story of evolution ended with a stirring in the brain-organ of the latest of Nature's experiments; but that stirring of consciousness transmutes the whole story and gives meaning to its symbolism. Symbolically it is the end, but looking behind the symbolism it is the beginning.<!--III, p.38

„If our so-called facts are changing shadows, they are shadows cast by the light of constant truth.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: If our so-called facts are changing shadows, they are shadows cast by the light of constant truth. So too in religion we are repelled by that confident theological doctrine... but we need not turn aside from the measure of light that comes into our experience showing us a Way through the unseen world.<!--IX, p.91

„Wherever a way opens we are impelled to seek by the only methods that can be devised for that particular opening,“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: Physical science comes nearest to that complete system of exact knowledge which all sciences have before them as an ideal. Some fall far short of it. The physicist who inveighs against the lack of coherence and the indefiniteness of theological theories, will probably speak not much less harshly of the theories of biology and psychology. They also fail to come up to his standard of methodology. On the other side of him stands an even superior being—the pure mathematician—who has no high opinion of the methods of deduction used in physics, and does not hide his disapproval of the laxity of what is accepted as proof in physical science. And yet somehow knowledge grows in all these branches. Wherever a way opens we are impelled to seek by the only methods that can be devised for that particular opening, not over-rating the security of our finding, but conscious that in this activity of mind we are obeying the light that is in our nature.<!--VII, p.77-78

„We are no longer tempted to condemn the spiritual aspects of our nature as illusory because of their lack of concreteness.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: We are no longer tempted to condemn the spiritual aspects of our nature as illusory because of their lack of concreteness.<!--III, p.33

„The theory of the "expanding universe" might also be called the theory of the "shrinking atom".“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: All change is relative. The universe is expanding relatively to our common material standards; our material standards are shrinking relatively to the size of the universe. The theory of the "expanding universe" might also be called the theory of the "shrinking atom". <...>

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„Matter and all else that is in the physical world have been reduced to a shadowy symbolism.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: Matter and all else that is in the physical world have been reduced to a shadowy symbolism.<!--III, p.33

„The casting of the net corresponds to observation; for knowledge which has not been or could not be obtained by observation is not admitted into physical science.
An onlooker may object that the first generalisation is wrong. "There are plenty of sea-creatures under two inches long, only your net is not adapted to catch them." The icthyologist dismisses this objection contemptuously.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: Let us suppose that an ichthyologist is exploring the life of the ocean. He casts a net into the water and brings up a fishy assortment. Surveying his catch, he proceeds in the usual manner of a scientist to systematise what it reveals. He arrives at two generalisations: No sea-creature is less than two inches long. (2) All sea-creatures have gills. These are both true of his catch, and he assumes tentatively that they will remain true however often he repeats it. In applying this analogy, the catch stands for the body of knowledge which constitutes physical science, and the net for the sensory and intellectual equipment which we use in obtaining it. The casting of the net corresponds to observation; for knowledge which has not been or could not be obtained by observation is not admitted into physical science. An onlooker may object that the first generalisation is wrong. "There are plenty of sea-creatures under two inches long, only your net is not adapted to catch them." The icthyologist dismisses this objection contemptuously. "Anything uncatchable by my net is ipso facto outside the scope of icthyological knowledge. In short, what my net can't catch isn't fish." Or — to translate the analogy — "If you are not simply guessing, you are claiming a knowledge of the physical universe discovered in some other way than by the methods of physical science, and admittedly unverifiable by such methods. You are a metaphysician. Bah!"

„It is of interest to inquire what happens when the aviator's speed... approximates to the velocity of light.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: It is of interest to inquire what happens when the aviator's speed... approximates to the velocity of light. Lengths in the direction of flight become smaller and smaller, until for the speed of light they shrink to zero. The aviator and the objects accompanying him shrink to two dimensions. We are saved the difficulty of imagining how the processes of life can go on in two dimensions, because nothing goes on. Time is arrested altogether. This is the description according to the terrestrial observer. The aviator himself detects nothing unusual; he does not perceive that he has stopped moving. He is merely waiting for the next instant to come before making the next movement; and the mere fact that time is arrested means that he does not perceive that the next instant is a long time coming.<!--p.26

„The exploration of the external world by the methods of physical science leads not to a concrete reality but to a shadow world of symbols, beneath which those methods are unadapted for penetrating.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: The exploration of the external world by the methods of physical science leads not to a concrete reality but to a shadow world of symbols, beneath which those methods are unadapted for penetrating.<!--VII, p.73

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„The aviator himself detects nothing unusual“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: It is of interest to inquire what happens when the aviator's speed... approximates to the velocity of light. Lengths in the direction of flight become smaller and smaller, until for the speed of light they shrink to zero. The aviator and the objects accompanying him shrink to two dimensions. We are saved the difficulty of imagining how the processes of life can go on in two dimensions, because nothing goes on. Time is arrested altogether. This is the description according to the terrestrial observer. The aviator himself detects nothing unusual; he does not perceive that he has stopped moving. He is merely waiting for the next instant to come before making the next movement; and the mere fact that time is arrested means that he does not perceive that the next instant is a long time coming.<!--p.26

„The finding of one generation will not serve for the next. It tarnishes rapidly except it be reserved with an ever-renewed spirit of seeking.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: It is perhaps difficult sufficiently to emphasise Seeking without disparaging its correlative Finding. But I must risk this, for Finding has a clamorous voice that proclaims its own importance; it is definite and assured, something that we can take hold of —that is what we all want, or think we want. Yet how transitory it proves. The finding of one generation will not serve for the next. It tarnishes rapidly except it be reserved with an ever-renewed spirit of seeking.<!--IX, p.87-88

„Objections to religious mysticism lose their force if they can equally be turned against natural mysticism.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: Objections to religious mysticism lose their force if they can equally be turned against natural mysticism.<!--IV, p.47

„To those who have any intimate acquaintance with the laws of chemistry and physics the suggestion that the spiritual world could be ruled by laws of allied character is as preposterous as the suggestion that a nation could be ruled by laws like the laws of grammar.“

—  Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: To those who have any intimate acquaintance with the laws of chemistry and physics the suggestion that the spiritual world could be ruled by laws of allied character is as preposterous as the suggestion that a nation could be ruled by laws like the laws of grammar.<!--V, p.54

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