Frases de Arthur Stanley Eddington página 2

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Arthur Stanley Eddington

Data de nascimento: 28. Dezembro 1882
Data de falecimento: 22. Novembro 1944
Outros nomes:Sir Arthur Eddington,Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington

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Arthur Stanley Eddington, OM foi um astrofísico britânico do início do século XX.

O limite de Eddington foi assim chamado em sua homenagem.

Eddington é famoso pelo seu trabalho sobre a Teoria da Relatividade. Eddington escreveu um artigo em 1919, Report on the relativity theory of gravitation, que anunciou a Teoria Geral da Relatividade de Einstein para o mundo anglófono. Devido à Primeira Guerra Mundial, os novos desenvolvimentos da ciência alemã não eram muito bem conhecidos no Reino Unido.

Citações Arthur Stanley Eddington

„To understand the phenomena of the physical world it is necessary to know the equations which the symbols obey but not the nature of that which is being symbolised.“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: If to-day you ask a physicist what he has finally made out the æther or the electron to be, the answer will not be a description in terms of billiard balls or fly-wheels or anything concrete; he will point instead to a number of symbols and a set of mathematical equations which they satisfy. What do the symbols stand for? The mysterious reply is given that physics is indifferent to that; it has no means of probing beneath the symbolism. To understand the phenomena of the physical world it is necessary to know the equations which the symbols obey but not the nature of that which is being symbolised.... this newer outlook has modified the challenge from the material to the spiritual world.<!--III, p.30

„Never mind what two tons refers to. What is it?“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: Never mind what two tons refers to. What is it? How has it entered in so definite a way into our exprerience? Two tons is the reading of the pointer when the elephant was placed on a weighing machine. Let us pass on. … And so we see that the poetry fades out of the problem, and by the time the serious application of exact science begins we are left only with pointer readings. Ch. 7 Pointer Readings <!-- p. 252 -->

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„We have found a strange foot-print on the shores of the unknown.“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: We have found a strange foot-print on the shores of the unknown. We have devised profound theories, one after another, to account for its origins. At last, we have succeeded in reconstructing the creature that made the footprint. And lo! It is our own.<!--p.201

„Our story of evolution ended with a stirring in the brain-organ of the latest of Nature's experiments“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: Our story of evolution ended with a stirring in the brain-organ of the latest of Nature's experiments; but that stirring of consciousness transmutes the whole story and gives meaning to its symbolism. Symbolically it is the end, but looking behind the symbolism it is the beginning.<!--III, p.38

„The man in the street is always making this demand for concrete explanation of the things referred to in science; but of necessity he must be disappointed.“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: Science aims at constructing a world which shall be symbolic of the world of commonplace experience. It is not at all necessary that every individual symbol that is used should represent something in common experience or even something explicable in terms of common experience. The man in the street is always making this demand for concrete explanation of the things referred to in science; but of necessity he must be disappointed. It is like our experience in learning to read. That which is written in a book is symbolic of a story in real life. The whole intention of the book is that ultimately a reader will identify some symbol, say BREAD, with one of the conceptions of familiar life. But it is mischievous to attempt such identifications prematurely, before the letters are strung into words and the words into sentences. The symbol A is not the counterpart of anything in familiar life. Introduction http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Extras/Eddington_Gifford.html

„It is to this background that our own personality and consciousness belong, and those spiritual aspects of our nature not to be described by any symbolism... to which mathematical physics has hitherto restricted itself.“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: It remains a real world if there is a background to the symbols—an unknown quantity which the mathematical symbol x stands for. We think we are not wholly cut off from this background. It is to this background that our own personality and consciousness belong, and those spiritual aspects of our nature not to be described by any symbolism... to which mathematical physics has hitherto restricted itself.<!--III, p.37-38

„Matter and all else that is in the physical world have been reduced to a shadowy symbolism.“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: Matter and all else that is in the physical world have been reduced to a shadowy symbolism.<!--III, p.33

„For the truth of the conclusions of physical science, observation is the supreme Court of Appeal.“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: For the truth of the conclusions of physical science, observation is the supreme Court of Appeal. It does not follow that every item which we confidently accept as physical knowledge has actually been certified by the Court; our confidence is that it would be certified by the Court if it were submitted. But it does follow that every item of physical knowledge is of a form which might be submitted to the Court. It must be such that we can specify (although it may be impracticable to carry out) an observational procedure which would decide whether it is true or not. Clearly a statement cannot be tested by observation unless it is an assertion about the results of observation. Every item of physical knowledge must therefore be an assertion of what has been or would be the result of carrying out a specified observational procedure. <!-- p. 9

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„You will understand the true spirit neither of science nor of religion unless seeking is placed in the forefront.“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: You will understand the true spirit neither of science nor of religion unless seeking is placed in the forefront.<!--IX, p.88

„In the world of physics we watch a shadowgraph performance of the drama of familiar life.“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: In physics we have outgrown archer and apple-pie definitions of the fundamental symbols. To a request to explain what an electron really is supposed to be we can only answer, "It is part of the A B C of physics". The external world of physics has thus become a world of shadows. In removing our illusions we have removed the substance, for indeed we have seen that substance is one of the greatest of our illusions. Later perhaps we may inquire whether in our zeal to cut out all that is unreal we may not have used the knife too ruthlessly. Perhaps, indeed, reality is a child which cannot survive without its nurse illusion. But if so, that is of little concern to the scientist, who has good and sufficient reasons for pursuing his investigations in the world of shadows and is content to leave to the philosopher the determination of its exact status in regard to reality. In the world of physics we watch a shadowgraph performance of the drama of familiar life. The shadow of my elbow rests on the shadow table as the shadow ink flows over the shadow paper. It is all symbolic, and as a symbol the physicist leaves it. Then comes the alchemist Mind who transmutes the symbols. The sparsely spread nuclei of electric force become a tangible solid; their restless agitation becomes the warmth of summer; the octave of aethereal vibrations becomes a gorgeous rainbow. Nor does the alchemy stop here. In the transmuted world new significances arise which are scarcely to be traced in the world of symbols; so that it becomes a world of beauty and purpose — and, alas, suffering and evil. The frank realisation that physical science is concerned with a world of shadows is one of the most significant of recent advances. Introduction

„The aviator himself detects nothing unusual“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: It is of interest to inquire what happens when the aviator's speed... approximates to the velocity of light. Lengths in the direction of flight become smaller and smaller, until for the speed of light they shrink to zero. The aviator and the objects accompanying him shrink to two dimensions. We are saved the difficulty of imagining how the processes of life can go on in two dimensions, because nothing goes on. Time is arrested altogether. This is the description according to the terrestrial observer. The aviator himself detects nothing unusual; he does not perceive that he has stopped moving. He is merely waiting for the next instant to come before making the next movement; and the mere fact that time is arrested means that he does not perceive that the next instant is a long time coming.<!--p.26

„Some mechanism seems to be needed, whereby either gravitation creates matter, or all the matter in the universe conspires to define a law of gravitation.“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: We can see that, the constant in the law of gravitation being fixed, there may be some upper limit to the amount of matter possible; as more and more matter is added in the distant parts, space curves round and ultimately closes; the process of adding more matter must stop, because there is no more space, and we can only return to the region already dealt with. But there seems nothing to prevent a defect of matter, leaving space unclosed. Some mechanism seems to be needed, whereby either gravitation creates matter, or all the matter in the universe conspires to define a law of gravitation.<!--p.163

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„Objections to religious mysticism lose their force if they can equally be turned against natural mysticism.“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: Objections to religious mysticism lose their force if they can equally be turned against natural mysticism.<!--IV, p.47

„To those who have any intimate acquaintance with the laws of chemistry and physics the suggestion that the spiritual world could be ruled by laws of allied character is as preposterous as the suggestion that a nation could be ruled by laws like the laws of grammar.“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: To those who have any intimate acquaintance with the laws of chemistry and physics the suggestion that the spiritual world could be ruled by laws of allied character is as preposterous as the suggestion that a nation could be ruled by laws like the laws of grammar.<!--V, p.54

„Symbolically it is the end, but looking behind the symbolism it is the beginning.“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: Our story of evolution ended with a stirring in the brain-organ of the latest of Nature's experiments; but that stirring of consciousness transmutes the whole story and gives meaning to its symbolism. Symbolically it is the end, but looking behind the symbolism it is the beginning.<!--III, p.38

„The scientific answer is relevant so far as concerns the sense-impressions... For the rest the human spirit must turn to the unseen world to which it itself belongs.“

— Arthur Stanley Eddington
Context: The scientific answer is relevant so far as concerns the sense-impressions... For the rest the human spirit must turn to the unseen world to which it itself belongs.<!--IV, p.43

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