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Northrop Frye

Data de nascimento: 14. Julho 1912
Data de falecimento: 23. Janeiro 1991
Outros nomes: ਨੋਰਥਰੋਪ ਫ੍ਰਾਈ, Нортроп Фрај, Нортроп Фрай

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Herman Northrop Frye foi um crítico literário canadense, um dos mais célebres do século XX.

Nascido em Sherbrooke, Quebec, mas criado em Moncton, New Brunswick, ele passou toda sua carreira, incluindo seus dias de aluno da graduação, na Faculdade Victoria, Universidade de Toronto. Ele chegou à proeminência internacional quando ainda era estudante. A poesia profética de William Blake há muito era considerada divagações delirantes que nunca poderiam ser entendidas. Frye encontrou nela um sistema de metáfora derivado do Paraíso Perdido e da Bíblia. Ele publicou suas descobertas como Fearful Symmetry em 1947.

Dez anos mais tarde ele expandiu sua visão, defendendo em Anatomia da crítica que há certos arquétipos e símbolos usados por toda a literatura. Seu O código dos códigos examinou como as cenas e imagens da Bíblia são a base de toda a literatura ocidental. Dentro desse contexto, ele analisou a novela Dão-Lalalão de João Guimarães Rosa, na qual percebeu influências bíblicas do livro Cantares de Salomão .

Ele também se ocupou de crítica cultural e social e recebeu 39 títulos honorários. Anatomia da crítica permanece um dos mais importantes trabalhos da crítica literária do século XX.

Frye foi premiado com Medalha Lorne Pierce Medal da Royal Society of Canada em 1958. Em 1972 ele recebeu a Comenda da Ordem do Canadá.

Northrop Frye morreu em 1991 e foi enterrado no Mount Pleasant Cemetery em Toronto, Ontário.

Em 2000, ele foi honrado pelo governo do Canadá com sua imagem num selo postal. Um festival devotado aos trabalhos de Northrop Frye é realizado anualmente em Moncton, New Brunswick no mês de abril.

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Citações Northrop Frye

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„In literature you don't just read one poem or novel after another, but enter into a complete world of which every work of literature forms part.“

—  Northrop Frye
"Quotes", The Educated Imagination (1963), Talk 3: Giants in Time, Context: In literature you don't just read one poem or novel after another, but enter into a complete world of which every work of literature forms part. This affects the writer as much as it does the reader.

„At the level of ordinary consciousness the individual man is the centre of everything, surrounded on all sides by what he isn't.“

—  Northrop Frye
"Quotes", The Educated Imagination (1963), Talk 1: The Motive For Metaphor http://northropfrye-theeducatedimagination.blogspot.ca/2009/08/1-motive-for-metaphor.html, Context: At the level of ordinary consciousness the individual man is the centre of everything, surrounded on all sides by what he isn't. At the level of practical sense, or civilization, there's a human circumference, a little cultivated world with a human shape, fenced off from the jungle and inside the sea and the sky. But in the imagination anything goes that can be imagined, and the limit of the imagination is a totally human world.

„But in the imagination anything goes that can be imagined, and the limit of the imagination is a totally human world.“

—  Northrop Frye
"Quotes", The Educated Imagination (1963), Talk 1: The Motive For Metaphor http://northropfrye-theeducatedimagination.blogspot.ca/2009/08/1-motive-for-metaphor.html, Context: At the level of ordinary consciousness the individual man is the centre of everything, surrounded on all sides by what he isn't. At the level of practical sense, or civilization, there's a human circumference, a little cultivated world with a human shape, fenced off from the jungle and inside the sea and the sky. But in the imagination anything goes that can be imagined, and the limit of the imagination is a totally human world.

„We have to look at the figures of speech a writer uses, his images and symbols, to realize that underneath all the complexity of human life that uneasy stare at an alien nature is still haunting us, and the problem of surmounting it is still with us.“

—  Northrop Frye
"Quotes", The Educated Imagination (1963), Talk 2: The Singing School, Context: [L]iterature not only leads us toward the regaining of identity, but it also separates this state from its opposite, the world we don't like and want to get away from... We have to look at the figures of speech a writer uses, his images and symbols, to realize that underneath all the complexity of human life that uneasy stare at an alien nature is still haunting us, and the problem of surmounting it is still with us.... Literature is still doing the same job that mythology did earlier, but filling in its huge cloudy shapes with sharper lights and deeper shadows.

„For all its wonderful machinery, we know it's really a crazy ramshackle building, and at ay time may crash around our ears.“

—  Northrop Frye
"Quotes", The Educated Imagination (1963), Talk 6: The Vocation of Eloquence, Context: The particular myth that's been organizing this talk, and in a way the whole series, is the story of the Tower of Babel in the Bible. The civilization we live in at present is a gigantic technological structure, a skyscraper almost high enough to reach the moon. It looks like a single world-wide effort, but it's really a deadlock of rivalries; it looks very impressive, except that it has no genuine human dignity. For all its wonderful machinery, we know it's really a crazy ramshackle building, and at ay time may crash around our ears. What the myth tells us is that the Tower of Babel is a work of human imagination, that tis main elements are words, and that what will make it collapse is a confusion of tongues. All had originally one language, the myth says. That language is not English or Russian or Chinese or any common ancestor, if there was one. It is the language of human nature, the language that makes both Shakespeare and Pushkin authentic poets, that gives a social vision to both Lincoln and Gandhi. It never speaks unless we take the time to listen in leisure, and it speaks only in a voice too quite for panic to hear. And then all it has to tell us, when we look over the edge of our leaning tower, is that we are not getting any nearer [to] heaven, and that it is time to return to the earth.

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„I wrote Fearful Symmetry during the Second World War, and hideous as the time was, it provided some parallels with Blake's time which were useful for understanding Blake's attitude to the world.“

—  Northrop Frye
"Quotes", Fearful Symmetry : A Study of William Blake (1947), Context: I wrote Fearful Symmetry during the Second World War, and hideous as the time was, it provided some parallels with Blake's time which were useful for understanding Blake's attitude to the world. Today, now that reactionary and radical forces alike are once more in the grip of the nihilistic psychosis that Blake described so powerful in Jerusalem, one of the most hopeful signs is the immensely increased sense of the urgency and immediacy of what Blake had to say. Preface of the 1969 edition of Fearful Symmetry : A Study of William Blake (1947)

„Literature is a world that we try to build up and enter at the same time.“

—  Northrop Frye
"Quotes", The Educated Imagination (1963), Talk 3: Giants in Time, Context: We relate the poems and plays and novels we read and see, not to the men who wrote them, nor even directly to ourselves; we relate them to each other. Literature is a world that we try to build up and enter at the same time.

„Bigots and fanatics seldom have any use for the arts,“

—  Northrop Frye
"Quotes", The Educated Imagination (1963), Talk 3: Giants in Time, Context: One of the most obvious uses [of literature], I think, is its encouragement of tolerance. In the imagination our own beliefs are also only possibilities, but we can also see the possibilities in the beliefs of others. Bigots and fanatics seldom have any use for the arts, because they're so preoccupied with their beliefs and actions that they can't see them as also possibilities.

„Education is something that affects the whole person, not bits and pieces of him.“

—  Northrop Frye
"Quotes", The Educated Imagination (1963), Talk 6: The Vocation of Eloquence, Context: Education is something that affects the whole person, not bits and pieces of him. It doesn't just train the mind: it's a social and moral development too.

„Finnegans Wake is not a book to read, but a book to decipher:“

—  Northrop Frye
"Quotes", The Educated Imagination (1963), Talk 4: The Keys To Dreamland, Context: Finnegans Wake is not a book to read, but a book to decipher: as Joyce says, it's about a dreamer, but it's addressed to an ideal reader suffering from ideal insomnia.

„The poet…is an identifier: everything he sees in nature he identifies with human life.“

—  Northrop Frye
"Quotes", The Educated Imagination (1963), Talk 3: Giants in Time, Context: The poet... is an identifier: everything he sees in nature he identifies with human life.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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