Frases de Northrop Frye

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Northrop Frye

Data de nascimento: 14. Julho 1912
Data de falecimento: 23. Janeiro 1991
Outros nomes:ਨੋਰਥਰੋਪ ਫ੍ਰਾਈ, Нортроп Фрај, Нортроп Фрай

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Herman Northrop Frye foi um crítico literário canadense, um dos mais célebres do século XX.

Nascido em Sherbrooke, Quebec, mas criado em Moncton, New Brunswick, ele passou toda sua carreira, incluindo seus dias de aluno da graduação, na Faculdade Victoria, Universidade de Toronto. Ele chegou à proeminência internacional quando ainda era estudante. A poesia profética de William Blake há muito era considerada divagações delirantes que nunca poderiam ser entendidas. Frye encontrou nela um sistema de metáfora derivado do Paraíso Perdido e da Bíblia. Ele publicou suas descobertas como Fearful Symmetry em 1947.

Dez anos mais tarde ele expandiu sua visão, defendendo em Anatomia da crítica que há certos arquétipos e símbolos usados por toda a literatura. Seu O código dos códigos examinou como as cenas e imagens da Bíblia são a base de toda a literatura ocidental. Dentro desse contexto, ele analisou a novela Dão-Lalalão de João Guimarães Rosa, na qual percebeu influências bíblicas do livro Cantares de Salomão .

Ele também se ocupou de crítica cultural e social e recebeu 39 títulos honorários. Anatomia da crítica permanece um dos mais importantes trabalhos da crítica literária do século XX.

Frye foi premiado com Medalha Lorne Pierce Medal da Royal Society of Canada em 1958. Em 1972 ele recebeu a Comenda da Ordem do Canadá.

Northrop Frye morreu em 1991 e foi enterrado no Mount Pleasant Cemetery em Toronto, Ontário.

Em 2000, ele foi honrado pelo governo do Canadá com sua imagem num selo postal. Um festival devotado aos trabalhos de Northrop Frye é realizado anualmente em Moncton, New Brunswick no mês de abril.

Citações Northrop Frye

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„We are now dealing with the imaginative, not the existential, with the "let this be," not with "this is," and no work of literature is better by virtue of what it says than any other work“

—  Northrop Frye
Context: The fundamental act of criticism is a disinterested response to a work of literature in which all one's beliefs, engagements, commitments, prejudices, stampedings of pity and terror, are ordered to be quiet. We are now dealing with the imaginative, not the existential, with the "let this be," not with "this is," and no work of literature is better by virtue of what it says than any other work. The Well-Tempered Critic, p. 140

„The use of cliché [is] the use of ready-made, prefabricated formulas designed to give those who are too lazy think the illusion of thinking“

—  Northrop Frye
Context: The use of cliché [is] the use of ready-made, prefabricated formulas designed to give those who are too lazy think the illusion of thinking... If our aim is only to say what gets by in society, our reactions will become almost completely mechanical. That's the direction cliché takes us in... it's no more a product of a conscious mind than the bark of a dog.

„A public that tries to do without criticism, and asserts that it knows what it wants or likes, brutalizes the arts and loses its cultural memory.“

—  Northrop Frye
Context: A public that tries to do without criticism, and asserts that it knows what it wants or likes, brutalizes the arts and loses its cultural memory. Art for art's sake is a retreat from criticism which ends in an impoverishment of civilized life itself.

„I had genius. No one else in the field known to me had quite that.“

—  Northrop Frye
Context: The twentieth century saw an amazing development of scholarship and criticism in the humanities, carried out by people who were more intelligent, better trained, had more languages, had a better sense of proportion, and were infinitely more accurate scholars and competent professional men than I. I had genius. No one else in the field known to me had quite that. "Statement for the Day of My Death"

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„The poet...is an identifier: everything he sees in nature he identifies with human life.“

—  Northrop Frye
Context: The poet... is an identifier: everything he sees in nature he identifies with human life.

„Finnegans Wake is not a book to read, but a book to decipher:“

—  Northrop Frye
Context: Finnegans Wake is not a book to read, but a book to decipher: as Joyce says, it's about a dreamer, but it's addressed to an ideal reader suffering from ideal insomnia.

„Education is something that affects the whole person, not bits and pieces of him.“

—  Northrop Frye
Context: Education is something that affects the whole person, not bits and pieces of him. It doesn't just train the mind: it's a social and moral development too.

„Literature is a world that we try to build up and enter at the same time.“

—  Northrop Frye
Context: We relate the poems and plays and novels we read and see, not to the men who wrote them, nor even directly to ourselves; we relate them to each other. Literature is a world that we try to build up and enter at the same time.

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„Bigots and fanatics seldom have any use for the arts,“

—  Northrop Frye
Context: One of the most obvious uses [of literature], I think, is its encouragement of tolerance. In the imagination our own beliefs are also only possibilities, but we can also see the possibilities in the beliefs of others. Bigots and fanatics seldom have any use for the arts, because they're so preoccupied with their beliefs and actions that they can't see them as also possibilities.

„The wise man looks for the invisible line between the "is" and the "is not" which is the way through“

—  Northrop Frye
Context: Man is born lost in a forest. If he is obsessed by the thereness of the forest, he stays lost and goes in circles; if he assumes the forest is not there, he keeps bumping into trees. The wise man looks for the invisible line between the "is" and the "is not" which is the way through. The street in the city, the highway in the desert, the pathway of the planets through the labyrinth of the stars, are parallel forms. (1:111)

„The civilization we live in at present is a gigantic technological structure“

—  Northrop Frye
Context: The particular myth that's been organizing this talk, and in a way the whole series, is the story of the Tower of Babel in the Bible. The civilization we live in at present is a gigantic technological structure, a skyscraper almost high enough to reach the moon. It looks like a single world-wide effort, but it's really a deadlock of rivalries; it looks very impressive, except that it has no genuine human dignity. For all its wonderful machinery, we know it's really a crazy ramshackle building, and at ay time may crash around our ears. What the myth tells us is that the Tower of Babel is a work of human imagination, that tis main elements are words, and that what will make it collapse is a confusion of tongues. All had originally one language, the myth says. That language is not English or Russian or Chinese or any common ancestor, if there was one. It is the language of human nature, the language that makes both Shakespeare and Pushkin authentic poets, that gives a social vision to both Lincoln and Gandhi. It never speaks unless we take the time to listen in leisure, and it speaks only in a voice too quite for panic to hear. And then all it has to tell us, when we look over the edge of our leaning tower, is that we are not getting any nearer [to] heaven, and that it is time to return to the earth.

„At the level of ordinary consciousness the individual man is the centre of everything, surrounded on all sides by what he isn't.“

—  Northrop Frye
Context: At the level of ordinary consciousness the individual man is the centre of everything, surrounded on all sides by what he isn't. At the level of practical sense, or civilization, there's a human circumference, a little cultivated world with a human shape, fenced off from the jungle and inside the sea and the sky. But in the imagination anything goes that can be imagined, and the limit of the imagination is a totally human world.

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