Frases de Karl Mannheim

Karl Mannheim foto
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Karl Mannheim

Data de nascimento: 27. Março 1893
Data de falecimento: 9. Janeiro 1947

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Karl Mannheim foi um sociólogo judeu nascido na Hungria.

Iniciou seus estudos de filosofia e sociologia em Budapeste participando de um grupo de estudos coordenado por Georg Lukács. Estudou também em Berlim — onde ouviu as preleções de Georg Simmel — e Paris. Em Heidelberg, onde Mannheim foi aluno do sociólogo Alfred Weber, irmão de Max Weber, tornou-se privatdozent a partir de 1920. Foi professor extraordinário de sociologia em Frankfurt a partir de 1934. Em 1935, com a ascensão do nazismo Mannheim deixou a Alemanha para tornar-se professor da London School of Economics.

O marxismo exerceu inicialmente uma forte influência sobre o pensamento de Mannheim, mas acabou abandonando-o, em parte por não acreditar que fossem necessários meios revolucionários para atingir uma sociedade melhor. Seu pensamento assemelha-se em certos aspectos aos de Hegel e Comte: acreditava que, no futuro, o homem iria superar o domínio que os processos históricos exercem sobre ele. Foi também muito influenciado pelo historicismo alemão e pelo pragmatismo inglês. Max Weber e Karl Marx são os principais sociólogos com quem Mannheim dialoga para a construção da sua teoria sociológica a partir de Ideologia e Utopia .

Seu primeiro livro de grande envergadura , Ideologie und Utopia , de 1929, é também considerado seu mais importante escrito. Nesta obra, Mannheim afirma que todo ato de conhecimento não resulta apenas da consciência puramente teórica mas também de inúmeros elementos de natureza não teórica, provenientes da vida social e das influências e vontades a que o indivíduo está sujeito. Algumas influências de pensadores anteriores são importantes para os conceitos que Mannheim desenvolverá a partir desta obra. De Nietzsche utilizará o perspectivismo, de Marx o conflito e a dominação e a sua teoria da ideologia, de Max Weber a sua tipologia para análise e o método compreensivo. Como resultado, Ideologia e Utopia é um livro que abarca desde epistemologia e metodologia, até teoria social , e lança os alicerces da Wissensoziologie , que já havia sido introduzida, de forma não tão consistente como o fez Mannheim, por Scheler e Veblen. Expande a questão dos intelectuais relativamente desvinculados de classes sociais, utilizando o termo intelligentsia cunhado por Alfred Weber, introduz uma análise do irracionalismo na política .

Segundo Mannheim, a influência desses fatores é da maior importância e sua investigação deveria ser o objeto de uma nova disciplina: a sociologia do conhecimento. Cada fase da humanidade seria dominada por certo tipo de pensamento e a comparação entre vários estilos diferentes seria impossível. Em cada fase aparecem tendências conflitantes, apontando seja para a conservação, seja para a mudança. A adesão à primeira tende a produzir ideologias e a adesão à segunda tende a produzir utopias. Mannheim entende que ao adotar o ponto de vista de uma classe ou grupo o indivíduo não estará apto a uma compreensão total da realidade, pois tais pontos de vista sempre limitam a sua compreensão em relação aos pontos de vista "adversários".

O pensamento de Mannheim foi criticado sob alegação de, através do historicismo, conduzir ao relativismo. Mannheim negou essa crítica, afirmando que o relativismo só existe dentro de uma concepção absolutista das ideologias ou de qualquer forma de pensamento. Aliás, foi o próprio Mannheim que, em Ideologia e Utopia disse textualmente que o relativismo seria uma forma errônea de compreender a realidade social , sugerindo o relacionismo como uma forma ampliada de compreender as realidades parciais em inter-relação constante.

Outras investigações importantes de Mannheim compreendem estudos sobre as relações entre pensamento e ação. Sua contribuição para a teoria do planejamento e para a caracterização das sociedades de massa tem especial destaque.

O sociólogo Kurt Heinrich Wolff, que foi aluno de Mannhein em Frankfurt e que em seguida foi Presidente do Comitê de Investigação da Sociologia do Conhecimento do International Sociological Association e Presidente da Sociedade Internacional para a Sociologia do Conhecimento, teve uma grande influência na propagação da Sociologia do conhecimento por ter traduzido Karl Mannheim no Estados Unidos.

Citações Karl Mannheim

„When we attribute to one historical epoch one intellectual world and to ourselves another one, or if a certain historically determined social stratum thinks in categories other than our own, we refer not to the isolated cases of thought-content, but to fundamentally divergent thought-systems and to widely differing modes of experience and interpretation.“

— Karl Mannheim
Context: The particular conception of "ideology" makes its analysis of ideas on a purely psychological level. If it is claimed for instance that an adversary is lying, or that he is concealing or distorting a given factual situation, it is still nevertheless assumed that both parties share common criteria of validity — it is still assumed that it is possible to refute lies and eradicate sources or error by referring to accepted criteria of objective validity common to both parties. The suspicion that one's opponent is the victim of an ideology does not go so far as to exclude him from discussion on the basis of a common theoretical frame of reference. The case is different with the total conception of ideology. When we attribute to one historical epoch one intellectual world and to ourselves another one, or if a certain historically determined social stratum thinks in categories other than our own, we refer not to the isolated cases of thought-content, but to fundamentally divergent thought-systems and to widely differing modes of experience and interpretation.

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„Every bureaucracy, therefore, in accord with the peculiar emphasis on its own position, tends to generalize its own experience and to overlook the fact that the realm of administration and of smoothly functioning order represents only a part of the total political reality.“

— Karl Mannheim
Context: Every bureaucracy, therefore, in accord with the peculiar emphasis on its own position, tends to generalize its own experience and to overlook the fact that the realm of administration and of smoothly functioning order represents only a part of the total political reality. Bureaucratic thought does not deny the possibility of the science of politics, but regards it as identical with the science of administration. Thus irrational factors are overlooked, and when these nevertheless force themselves to the fore, they are treated as "routine matters of state."

„It has become extremely questionable whether, in the flux of life, it is a genuinely worthwhile intellectual problem to seek to discover fixed and immutable ideas or absolutes.“

— Karl Mannheim
Context: It has become extremely questionable whether, in the flux of life, it is a genuinely worthwhile intellectual problem to seek to discover fixed and immutable ideas or absolutes. It is a more worthy intellectual task perhaps to learn to think dynamically and relationally rather than statically.

„This first non-evaluative insight into history does not inevitably lead to relativism, but rather to relationism.“

— Karl Mannheim
Context: This first non-evaluative insight into history does not inevitably lead to relativism, but rather to relationism. Knowledge, as seen in the light of the total conception of ideology, is by no means an illusory experience, for ideology in its relational concept is not at all identical with illusion. Knowledge arising out of our experience in actual life situations, though not absolute, is knowledge none the less. The norms arising out of such actual life situations do not exist in a social vacuum, but are effective as real sanctions for conduct. Relationism signifies merely that all of the elements of meaning in a given situation have reference to one another and derive their significance from this reciprocal interrelationship in a given frame of thought. Such a system of meanings is possible and valid only in a given type of historical existence, to which, for a time, it furnishes appropriate expression. When the social situation changes, the system of norms to which it had previously given birth ceases to be in harmony with it. The same estrangement goes on with reference to knowledge and to the historical perspective. All knowledge is oriented toward some object and is influenced in its approach by the nature of the object with which it is pre-occupied. But the mode of approach to the object to be known is dependent upon the nature of the knower.

„The norms arising out of such actual life situations do not exist in a social vacuum, but are effective as real sanctions for conduct. Relationism signifies merely that all of the elements of meaning in a given situation have reference to one another and derive their significance from this reciprocal interrelationship in a given frame of thought. Such a system of meanings is possible and valid only in a given type of historical existence, to which, for a time, it furnishes appropriate expression.“

— Karl Mannheim
Context: This first non-evaluative insight into history does not inevitably lead to relativism, but rather to relationism. Knowledge, as seen in the light of the total conception of ideology, is by no means an illusory experience, for ideology in its relational concept is not at all identical with illusion. Knowledge arising out of our experience in actual life situations, though not absolute, is knowledge none the less. The norms arising out of such actual life situations do not exist in a social vacuum, but are effective as real sanctions for conduct. Relationism signifies merely that all of the elements of meaning in a given situation have reference to one another and derive their significance from this reciprocal interrelationship in a given frame of thought. Such a system of meanings is possible and valid only in a given type of historical existence, to which, for a time, it furnishes appropriate expression. When the social situation changes, the system of norms to which it had previously given birth ceases to be in harmony with it. The same estrangement goes on with reference to knowledge and to the historical perspective. All knowledge is oriented toward some object and is influenced in its approach by the nature of the object with which it is pre-occupied. But the mode of approach to the object to be known is dependent upon the nature of the knower.

„The thought of every group is seen as arising out of its life conditions.“

— Karl Mannheim
Context: The thought of every group is seen as arising out of its life conditions. Thus, it becomes the task of the sociological history of thought to anlayse without regard for party biases all the factors in the actually existing social situation which may influence thought. This sociologically oriented history of ideas is destined to provide modern men with a revised view of the whole historical process.

„The non-evaluative general total conception of ideology is to be found primarily in those historical investigations, where, provisionally and for the sake of the simplification of the problem, no judgments are pronounced as to the correctness of the ideas to be treated. This approach confines itself to discovering the relations between certain mental structures and the life-situations in which they exist.“

— Karl Mannheim
Context: The non-evaluative general total conception of ideology is to be found primarily in those historical investigations, where, provisionally and for the sake of the simplification of the problem, no judgments are pronounced as to the correctness of the ideas to be treated. This approach confines itself to discovering the relations between certain mental structures and the life-situations in which they exist. We must constantly ask ourselves how it comes about that a given type of social situation gives rise to a given interpretation. Thus the ideological element in human thought, viewed at this level, is always bound up with the existing life-situation of the thinker. According to this view human thought arises, and operates, not in a social vacuum but in a definite social milieu.

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„All knowledge is oriented toward some object and is influenced in its approach by the nature of the object with which it is pre-occupied. But the mode of approach to the object to be known is dependent upon the nature of the knower.“

— Karl Mannheim
Context: This first non-evaluative insight into history does not inevitably lead to relativism, but rather to relationism. Knowledge, as seen in the light of the total conception of ideology, is by no means an illusory experience, for ideology in its relational concept is not at all identical with illusion. Knowledge arising out of our experience in actual life situations, though not absolute, is knowledge none the less. The norms arising out of such actual life situations do not exist in a social vacuum, but are effective as real sanctions for conduct. Relationism signifies merely that all of the elements of meaning in a given situation have reference to one another and derive their significance from this reciprocal interrelationship in a given frame of thought. Such a system of meanings is possible and valid only in a given type of historical existence, to which, for a time, it furnishes appropriate expression. When the social situation changes, the system of norms to which it had previously given birth ceases to be in harmony with it. The same estrangement goes on with reference to knowledge and to the historical perspective. All knowledge is oriented toward some object and is influenced in its approach by the nature of the object with which it is pre-occupied. But the mode of approach to the object to be known is dependent upon the nature of the knower.

„In general there are two distinct and separable meanings of the term "ideology" — the particular and the total.
The particular conception of ideology is implied when the term denotes that we are sceptical of the ideas and representations advanced by our opponent. They are regarded as more or less conscious disguises of the real nature of a situation, the true recognition of which would not be in accord with his interests.“

— Karl Mannheim
Context: In general there are two distinct and separable meanings of the term "ideology" — the particular and the total. The particular conception of ideology is implied when the term denotes that we are sceptical of the ideas and representations advanced by our opponent. They are regarded as more or less conscious disguises of the real nature of a situation, the true recognition of which would not be in accord with his interests. These distortions range all the way from conscious lies to half-conscious and unwitting disguises; from calculated attempts to dupe others to self-deception. This conception of ideology, which has only gradually become differentiated from the common-sense notion of the lie is particular in several senses. Its particularity becomes evident when it is contrasted with the more inclusive total conception of ideology. Here we refer to the ideology of an age or of a concrete historico-social group, e. g. of a class, when we are concerned with the characteristics and composition of the total structure of the mind of this epoch or of this group. Although they have something in common, there are also significant differences between them.

„Here we refer to the ideology of an age or of a concrete historico-social group, e.g. of a class, when we are concerned with the characteristics and composition of the total structure of the mind of this epoch or of this group. Although they have something in common, there are also significant differences between them.“

— Karl Mannheim
Context: In general there are two distinct and separable meanings of the term "ideology" — the particular and the total. The particular conception of ideology is implied when the term denotes that we are sceptical of the ideas and representations advanced by our opponent. They are regarded as more or less conscious disguises of the real nature of a situation, the true recognition of which would not be in accord with his interests. These distortions range all the way from conscious lies to half-conscious and unwitting disguises; from calculated attempts to dupe others to self-deception. This conception of ideology, which has only gradually become differentiated from the common-sense notion of the lie is particular in several senses. Its particularity becomes evident when it is contrasted with the more inclusive total conception of ideology. Here we refer to the ideology of an age or of a concrete historico-social group, e. g. of a class, when we are concerned with the characteristics and composition of the total structure of the mind of this epoch or of this group. Although they have something in common, there are also significant differences between them.

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