Frases de Hans Morgenthau

Hans Morgenthau photo
0   0

Hans Morgenthau

Data de nascimento: 17. Fevereiro 1904
Data de falecimento: 19. Julho 1980

Publicidade

Hans Joachim Morgenthau foi um pioneiro no campo de estudos da teoria das relações internacionais.

Morgenthau nasceu em uma família judia na Alemanha, e, já na década de 1930, foi professor na Suíça e na Espanha. Em 1930, emigrou definitivamente para os Estados Unidos, onde trabalhou em diversas universidades até se fixar na Universidade de Chicago, entre 1943 e 1971.

Hans Morgenthau escreveu seu principal trabalho, como mencionado anteriormente, consolidando a visão realista de Relações Internacionais recuperada por Edward Hallett Carr. Grande parte de suas visões continuam relevantes em função da importância do Neorrealismo de Kenneth Waltz contemporaneamente, além do resgate em termos atuais dos elementos centrais da teoria dentro da administração de George W. Bush nos Estados Unidos.

Morgenthau propos-se a investigar as relações entre as nações e as forças que envolvem esse relacionamento. Além disso, ele buscava delinear como seria a política externa norte-americana no período pós-guerra. Segundo o próprio autor, esse contexto seria de:

1- Substituição do multipolaridade pelo bipolaridade, cujos centros estariam fora da Europa Ocidental.

2- Divisão da unidade moral em dois sistemas antagônicos de pensamento que disputam entre si a lealdade dos homens.

3- Desenvolvimento da tecnologia nuclear que poderia levar à destruição da humanidade.

Como Morgenthau estava preocupado em orientar a nova política externa norte-americana, era importante notar a mudança do contexto internacional, caracterizada pelo advento do bipolarismo entre os Estados Unidos e a ex-União Soviética, ou seja, a constatação de que cada um dos países clama possuir a "moralidade correta" a ser seguida por toda a humanidade, o capitalismo e seus valores, de um lado, e o socialismo e os seus valores, do outro. Os seres humanos como um todo, mesmo dentro do campo de cada um, tenderiam a se aliar a uma ou a outra unidade moral. Finalmente, o advento da tecnologia nuclear implicou que, pela primeira vez na história da humanidade, há uma tecnologia bélica tão poderosa a ponto de eliminar por completo a população de uma cidade, como Hiroshima e Nagasaki demonstraram. Desse momento em diante, os grandes líderes mundiais deveriam levar em consideração, em seus cálculos, esse poder destrutivo.

Assim Como Carr, Morgenthau critica a chamada visão idealista das Relações Internacionais. Para ele, a paz mundial somente seria possível por meio de mecanismos negativos, ou seja, por um mecanismo de equilíbrio de poder.

Citações Hans Morgenthau

„Political realism is aware of the moral significance of political action. It is also aware of the ineluctable tension between the moral command and the requirements of successful political action.“

—  Hans Morgenthau
Context: Political realism is aware of the moral significance of political action. It is also aware of the ineluctable tension between the moral command and the requirements of successful political action. And it is unwilling to gloss over and obliterate that tension and thus to obfuscate both the moral and the political issue by making it appear as though the stark facts of politics were morally more satisfying than they actually are, and the moral law less exacting than it actually is. Six Principles of Political Realism, § 4.

„Political power is a psychological relation between those who exercise it and those over whom it is exercised.“

—  Hans Morgenthau
Context: We must distinguish between military and political power. Political power is a psychological relation between those who exercise it and those over whom it is exercised. It gives the former control over certain actions of the latter through the influence which the former exert over the latter's minds. That influence may be exerted through orders, threats, persuasion, or a combination of any of these. p. 27 (1954 edition).

Publicidade

„Political realism believes that politics, like society in general, is governed by objective laws that have their roots in human nature.“

—  Hans Morgenthau
Context: Political realism believes that politics, like society in general, is governed by objective laws that have their roots in human nature. In order to improve society it is first necessary to understand the laws by which society lives. The operation of these laws being impervious to our preferences, men will challenge them only at the risk of failure. Realism, believing as it does in the objectivity of the laws of politics, must also believe in the possibility of developing a rational theory that reflects, however imperfectly and one-sidedly, these objective laws. It believes also, then, in the possibility of distinguishing in politics between truth and opinion — between what is true objectively and rationally, supported by evidence and illuminated by reason, and what is only a subjective judgment, divorced from the facts as they are and informed by prejudice and wishful thinking. Six Principles of Political Realism http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/morg6.htm, § 1.

„When we speak of power, we mean man's control over the minds and actions of other men.“

—  Hans Morgenthau
Context: When we speak of power, we mean man's control over the minds and actions of other men. By political power we refer to the mutual relations of control among the holders of public authority and between the latter and the people at large. p. 33 (1993 edition).

„Political realism refuses to identify the moral aspirations of a particular nation with the moral laws that govern the universe.“

—  Hans Morgenthau
Context: Political realism refuses to identify the moral aspirations of a particular nation with the moral laws that govern the universe. As it distinguishes between truth and opinion, so it distinguishes between truth and idolatry. All nations are tempted — and few have been able to resist the power for long — to clothe their own aspirations and action in the moral purposes of the universe. To know that nations are subject to the moral law is one thing, while to pretend to know with certainty what is good and evil in the relations among nations is quite another. There is a world of difference between the belief that all nations stand under the judgment of God, inscrutable to the human mind, and the blasphemous conviction that God is always on one's side and that what one wills oneself cannot fail to be willed by God also. Six Principles of Political Realism, § 5.

„Even though anthropologists have shown that certain primitive peoples seem to be free from the desire for power, nobody has yet shown how their state of mind can be re-created on a worldwide scale so as to eliminate the struggle for power from the international scene. … International politics, like all politics, is a struggle for power.“

—  Hans Morgenthau
Context: The struggle for power is universal in time and space and is an undeniable fact of experience. It cannot be denied that throughout historic time, regardless of social, economic and political conditions, states have met each other in contests for power. Even though anthropologists have shown that certain primitive peoples seem to be free from the desire for power, nobody has yet shown how their state of mind can be re-created on a worldwide scale so as to eliminate the struggle for power from the international scene. … International politics, like all politics, is a struggle for power. Whatever the ultimate aims of international politics, power is always the immediate aim. p. 29 (1978 edition).

„Realism maintains that universal moral principles cannot be applied to the actions of states in their abstract universal formulation, but that they must be filtered through the concrete circumstances of time and place.“

—  Hans Morgenthau
Context: Realism maintains that universal moral principles cannot be applied to the actions of states in their abstract universal formulation, but that they must be filtered through the concrete circumstances of time and place. The individual may say for himself: "Fiat justitia, pereat mundus (Let justice be done, even if the world perish)," but the state has no right to say so in the name of those who are in its care. Both individual and state must judge political action by universal moral principles, such as that of liberty. Yet while the individual has a moral right to sacrifice himself in defense of such a moral principle, the state has no right to let its moral disapprobation of the infringement of liberty get in the way of successful political action, itself inspired by the moral principle of national survival. Six Principles of Political Realism, § 4.

„The struggle for power is universal in time and space and is an undeniable fact of experience.“

—  Hans Morgenthau
Context: The struggle for power is universal in time and space and is an undeniable fact of experience. It cannot be denied that throughout historic time, regardless of social, economic and political conditions, states have met each other in contests for power. Even though anthropologists have shown that certain primitive peoples seem to be free from the desire for power, nobody has yet shown how their state of mind can be re-created on a worldwide scale so as to eliminate the struggle for power from the international scene. … International politics, like all politics, is a struggle for power. Whatever the ultimate aims of international politics, power is always the immediate aim. p. 29 (1978 edition).

Publicidade

„All nations are tempted — and few have been able to resist the power for long — to clothe their own aspirations and action in the moral purposes of the universe.“

—  Hans Morgenthau
Context: Political realism refuses to identify the moral aspirations of a particular nation with the moral laws that govern the universe. As it distinguishes between truth and opinion, so it distinguishes between truth and idolatry. All nations are tempted — and few have been able to resist the power for long — to clothe their own aspirations and action in the moral purposes of the universe. To know that nations are subject to the moral law is one thing, while to pretend to know with certainty what is good and evil in the relations among nations is quite another. There is a world of difference between the belief that all nations stand under the judgment of God, inscrutable to the human mind, and the blasphemous conviction that God is always on one's side and that what one wills oneself cannot fail to be willed by God also. Six Principles of Political Realism, § 5.

„Influence can persuade, but power can compel.“

—  Hans Morgenthau
This has been cited as being from Politics Among Nations in ¿«Armas de convicción masiva»? American Studies durante la guerra fría: el casa Español (2010) by Francisco Javier Rodríguez Jiménez, p. 1, but has not been located in any English editions of the work and may be a back-translation or paraphrase of a statement within a Spanish edition.

Help us translate English quotes

Discover interesting quotes and translate them.

Translate quotes
Aniversários de hoje
Nelson Mandela photo
Nelson Mandela47
1918 - 2013
Jane Austen photo
Jane Austen48
1775 - 1817
João Ubaldo Ribeiro photo
João Ubaldo Ribeiro20
1941 - 2014
Outros 58 aniversários hoje
Autores parecidos
Karl Marx photo
Karl Marx74
filósofo, economista e sociólogo alemão