Frases de Cristóvão Colombo
Data de nascimento: 9. Novembro 1451
Data de falecimento: 20. Maio 1506
Cristóvão de Colombo foi um navegador e explorador italiano, responsável por liderar a frota que alcançou o continente americano em 12 de Outubro de 1492, sob as ordens dos Reis Católicos de Espanha, no chamado descobrimento da América. Empreendeu a sua viagem através do Oceano Atlântico com o objectivo de atingir a Índia, tendo na realidade descoberto as ilhas das Caraíbas e, mais tarde, a costa do Golfo do México na América Central.
Seu nome em italiano é Cristoforo Colombo, em latim Christophorus Columbus e em espanhol, Cristóbal Colón. Este antropónimo inspirou o nome de, pelo menos, um país, Colômbia e duas regiões da América do Norte: a Colúmbia Britânica no Canadá e o Distrito de Colúmbia nos Estados Unidos. Entretanto o Papa Alexandre VI escrevendo em latim sempre chamou ao navegador pelo nome de Christophorum Colon com significado de Membro e nunca pelo latim Columbus com significado de Pombo.
Colombo é creditado como o primeiro explorador europeu a estabelecer e documentar rotas comerciais para as Américas, apesar dele ter sido precedido por uma expedição viquingue liderada por Leif Erikson no século XI.
As viagens de Cristóvão Colombo abriram caminho para um período de contato, expansão, exploração, conquista e colonização do continente americano pelos Europeus pelos próximos séculos. Essas viagens e expedições trouxeram várias mudanças e desenvolvimentos na história moderna do Mundo Ocidental. Entre várias outras coisas, impulsionou, por exemplo, o comércio atlântico de escravos. Colombo também é acusado por diversos historiadores de iniciar e incitar o genocídio e repressão cultural dos povos nativos na América. O próprio Colombo viu suas conquistas sob a luz de expandir a religião cristã. Ele foi acusado, até por contemporâneos, de comportamento tirânico, corrupção e vários crimes contra os nativos indígenas, como estupros e tortura. Essas reavaliações de seus feitos fez com que a visão dos acadêmicos e historiadores sobre Colombo ficasse um tanto quanto negativa com o passar do tempo.
Citações Cristóvão Colombo
„Weep for me, whoever has charity, truth and justice! I did not come on this voyage for gain, honor or wealth, that is certain; for then the hope of all such things was dead. I came to Your Highnesses with honest purpose and sincere zeal; and I do not lie. I humbly beseech You Highnesses that, if it please God to remove me hence, you will help me to go to Rome and on other pilgrimages.“
„At two o'clock in the morning the land was discovered, at two leagues' distance; they took in sail and remained under the square-sail lying to till day, which was Friday, when they found themselves near a small island, one of the Lucayos, called in the Indian language Guanahani. Presently they descried people, naked, and the Admiral landed in the boat, which was armed, along with Martin Alonzo Pinzon, and Vincent Yanez his brother, captain of the Nina. The Admiral bore the royal standard, and the two captains each a banner of the Green Cross, which all the ships had carried; this contained the initials of the names of the King and Queen each side of the cross, and a crown over each letter Arrived on shore, they saw trees very green many streams of water, and diverse sorts of fruits.“
— Cristoforo Colombo
Variant translation: At two hours after midnight appeared the land, at a distance of two leagues. They handed all sails and set the treo, which is the mainsail without bonnets, and lay-to waiting for daylight Friday, when they arrived at an island of the Bahamas that was called in the Indians' tongue Guanahani. As translated in Journals and Other Documents on the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (1963) by Samuel Eliot Morison, p. 64
„... your Highnesses may believe that this island (Hispaniola), and all the others, are as much yours as Castile. Here there is only wanting a settlement and the order to the people to do what is required. For I, with the force I have under me, which is not large, could march over all these islands without opposition. I have seen only three sailors land, without wishing to do harm, and a multitude of Indians fled before them. They have no arms, and are without warlike instincts; they all go naked, and are so timid that a thousand would not stand before three of our men. So that they are good to be ordered about, to work and sow, and do all that may be necessary, and to build towns, and they should be taught to go about clothed and to adopt our customs.“
— Cristoforo Colombo
16 December 1492
„And I say that Your Highnesses ought not to consent that any foreigner does business or sets foot here, except Christian Catholics, since this was the end and the beginning of the enterprise, that it should be for the enhancement and glory of the Christian religion, nor should anyone who is not a good Christian come to these parts.“
— Cristoforo Colombo
27 November 1492
„I have always read that the world, both land and water, was spherical, as the authority and researches of Ptolemy and all the others who have written on this subject demonstrate and prove, as do the eclipses of the moon and other experiments that are made from east to west, and the elevation of the North Star from north to south.“
„And they know neither sect nor idolatry, with the exception that all believe that the source of all power and goodness is in the sky, and they believe very firmly that I, with these ships and people, came from the sky, and in this belief they everywhere received me, after they had overcome their fear.“
„The tempest was terrible and separated me from my [other] vessels that night, putting every one of them in desperate straits, with nothing to look forward to but death. Each was certain the others had been destroyed. What man ever born, not excepting Job, who would not have died of despair, when in such weather seeking safety for my son, my brother, shipmates, and myself, we were forbidden [access to] the land and the harbors which I, by God's will and sweating blood, had won for Spain?“
„I should be judged as a captain who went from Spain to the Indies to conquer a people numerous and warlike, whose manners and religion are very different from ours, who live in sierras and mountains, without fixed settlements, and where by divine will I have placed under the sovereignty of the King and Queen our Lords, an Other World, whereby Spain, which was reckoned poor, is become the richest of countries.“
— Cristoforo Colombo
Letter to Doña Juana de Torres (October 1500)