Frases de Anne Robert Jacques Turgot

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Anne Robert Jacques Turgot

Data de nascimento: 10. Maio 1727
Data de falecimento: 18. Março 1781

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Anne Robert Jacques Turgot foi um economista e estadista francês cuja obra é considerada um elo entre a fisiocracia e a escola britânica de economia clássica. Ele estudou na Universidade de Sorbonne e foi trabalhar na administração real.

Grande admirador dos enciclopedistas, os pensadores iluministas que formaram a primeira escola de economia científica, tornou-se um adepto da fisiocracia.

Como intendente de Limonges , aplicou com grande sucesso uma série de medidas destinadas à racionalizar a economia. Defendeu o livre comércio e a interdepêndencia entre as diferentes classes econômicas.

Pelo sucesso, foi nomeado ministro-geral das Finanças do rei Luís XVI de França . Porém, suas idéias de reforma econômica liberal despertaram a ira do clero e da nobreza, pois lhes tiravam certas mordomias e privilégios. Sob pressão, Luis XVI é obrigado a demitir-lhe em 1776, menos de dois anos após subir ao cargo. Jacques Necker o sucederia, em 1778.

Suas principais obras são os livros: Lettres sur la tolérance civile , Réflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses e Lettres sur la liberté de commerce des grains .

Tímido e sério, Turgot não tinha o jeito persuasivo daqueles que serviam ao rei francês. Ele estava ansioso para ajudar a França a superar suas dificuldades financeiras e fazer mudanças sociais para ajudar aos pobres, que eram penalizados com a maior parte dos impostos. Ele fez também pequenas reformas, a princípio, mas, em 1776, introduziu os seus Seis Éditos. Um deles abolia a taxa que os camponeses tinham que pagar por trabalhar. Em resposta, as raivosas classes privilegiadas planejaram sua queda, usando algumas cartas forjadas e a influência da rainha Maria Antonieta. Turgot foi dispensado em 12 de maio de 1776, e morreu em Paris no dia 18 de março de 1781. Todavia, por meio de seus escritos, principalmente o Reflections on the Formation and Distribution of Wealth, de 1766, suas ideias sobreviveram e proveram as bases das teorias econômicas posteriores.

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Citações Anne Robert Jacques Turgot

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„If the land was divided among all the inhabitants of a country, so that each of them possessed precisely the quantity necessary for his support, and nothing more; it is evident that all of them being equal, no one would work for another.“

—  Anne Robert Jacques Turgot
Context: If the land was divided among all the inhabitants of a country, so that each of them possessed precisely the quantity necessary for his support, and nothing more; it is evident that all of them being equal, no one would work for another. Neither would any of them possess wherewith to pay another for his labour, for each person having only such a quantity of land as was necessary to produce a subsistence, would consume all he should gather, and would not have any thing to give in exchange for the labour of others. § 1

„All is more or less proper to serve as a common measure, in proportion as it is more or less in general use, of a more similar quality, and more easy to be divided into aliquot parts.“

—  Anne Robert Jacques Turgot
Context: All is more or less proper to serve as a common measure, in proportion as it is more or less in general use, of a more similar quality, and more easy to be divided into aliquot parts. All is more or less applicable for the purpose of a general pledge of exchange, in proportion as it is less susceptible of decay or alteration in quantity or quality. § 39

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„The productions of the earth require long and difficult preparations, before they are rendered fit to supply the wants of men.“

—  Anne Robert Jacques Turgot
Context: The productions of the earth require long and difficult preparations, before they are rendered fit to supply the wants of men. The productions which the earth supplies to satisfy the different wants of man, will not, for the most part, administer to those wants, in the state nature affords them; it is necessary they should undergo different operations, and be prepared by art. Wheat must be converted into flour, then into bread; hides must be dressed or tanned; wool and cotton must be spun; silk must be taken from the cod; hemp and flax must be soaked, peeled, spun, and wove into different textures; then cut and sewed together again to make garments, &c. If the same man who cultivates on his own land these different articles, and who raises them to supply his wants, was obliged to perform all the intermediate operations himself, it is certain he would succeed very badly. § 3

„The fate of America is already decided — Behold her independent beyond recovery. — But will She be free and happy?“

—  Anne Robert Jacques Turgot
Context: The fate of America is already decided — Behold her independent beyond recovery. — But will She be free and happy? — Can this new people, so advantageously placed for giving an example to the world of a constitution under which man may enjoy his rights, freely exercise all his faculties, and be governed only by nature, reason and justice — Can they form such a Constitution? — Can they establish it upon a never failing foundation, and guard against every source of division and corruption which may gradually undermine and destroy it? … It is impossible not to wish ardently that this people may attain to all the prosperity of which they are capable. They are the hope of the world. They may become a model to it. They may prove by fact that men can be free and yet tranquil; and that it is in their power to rescue themselves from the chains in which tyrants and knaves of all descriptions have presumed to bind them under the pretence of the public good. They may exhibit an example of political liberty, of religious liberty, of commercial liberty, and of industry. The Asylum they open to the oppressed of all nations should console the earth. The case with which the injured may escape from oppressive governments, will compel Princes to become just and cautious; and the rest of the world will gradually open their eyes upon the empty illusions with which they have been hitherto cheated by politicians. But for this purpose America must preserve herself from these illusions; and take care to avoid being what your ministerial writers are frequently saying She will be — an image of our Europe — a mass of divided powers contending for territory and commerce, and continually cementing the slavery of the people with their own blood. Letter to Richard Price (22 March 1778) regarding Price's pamphlet, Observations on Civil Liberty and the Justice and Policy of the War with America (1776).

„Not only there does not exist, nor can exist, any other revenue than the clear produce of land, but it is the earth also that has furnished all capitals, that form the mass of all the advances of culture and commerce. It has produced, without culture, the first gross and indispensible advances of the first labourers; all the rest are the accumulated fruits of the œconomy of successive ages, since they have begun to cultivate the earth.“

—  Anne Robert Jacques Turgot
Context: Not only there does not exist, nor can exist, any other revenue than the clear produce of land, but it is the earth also that has furnished all capitals, that form the mass of all the advances of culture and commerce. It has produced, without culture, the first gross and indispensible advances of the first labourers; all the rest are the accumulated fruits of the œconomy of successive ages, since they have begun to cultivate the earth. This œconomy has effect not only on the revenues of proprietors, but also on the profits of all the members of laborious classes. It is even generally true, that, though the proprietors have more overplus, they spare less; for, having more treasure, they have more desires, and more passions; they think themselves better ensured of their fortune; and are more desirous of enjoying it contentedly, than to augment it; luxury is their pursuit. The stipendiary class, and he chiefly the undertakers of the other classes, receiving profits proportionate to their advances, talents, and activity, have, though they are not possessed of a revenue properly so called, a superfluity beyond their subsistence; but, absorbed as they generally are, only in their enterprizes, and anxious to increase their fortune; restrained by their labour from amusements and expensive passions; they save their whole superfluity, to re-convert it in other enterprizes, and augment it. § 100

„It is impossible not to wish ardently that this people may attain to all the prosperity of which they are capable. They are the hope of the world. They may become a model to it. They may prove by fact that men can be free and yet tranquil; and that it is in their power to rescue themselves from the chains in which tyrants and knaves of all descriptions have presumed to bind them under the pretence of the public good. They may exhibit an example of political liberty, of religious liberty, of commercial liberty, and of industry.“

—  Anne Robert Jacques Turgot
Context: The fate of America is already decided — Behold her independent beyond recovery. — But will She be free and happy? — Can this new people, so advantageously placed for giving an example to the world of a constitution under which man may enjoy his rights, freely exercise all his faculties, and be governed only by nature, reason and justice — Can they form such a Constitution? — Can they establish it upon a never failing foundation, and guard against every source of division and corruption which may gradually undermine and destroy it? … It is impossible not to wish ardently that this people may attain to all the prosperity of which they are capable. They are the hope of the world. They may become a model to it. They may prove by fact that men can be free and yet tranquil; and that it is in their power to rescue themselves from the chains in which tyrants and knaves of all descriptions have presumed to bind them under the pretence of the public good. They may exhibit an example of political liberty, of religious liberty, of commercial liberty, and of industry. The Asylum they open to the oppressed of all nations should console the earth. The case with which the injured may escape from oppressive governments, will compel Princes to become just and cautious; and the rest of the world will gradually open their eyes upon the empty illusions with which they have been hitherto cheated by politicians. But for this purpose America must preserve herself from these illusions; and take care to avoid being what your ministerial writers are frequently saying She will be — an image of our Europe — a mass of divided powers contending for territory and commerce, and continually cementing the slavery of the people with their own blood. Letter to Richard Price (22 March 1778) regarding Price's pamphlet, Observations on Civil Liberty and the Justice and Policy of the War with America (1776).

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„The earth has been cultivated before it has been divided; the cultivation itself having been the only motive for a division, and for that law which secures to every one his property.“

—  Anne Robert Jacques Turgot
Context: The earth has been cultivated before it has been divided; the cultivation itself having been the only motive for a division, and for that law which secures to every one his property. For the first persons who have employed themselves in cultivation, have probably worked as much land as their strength would permit, and, consequently, more than was necessary for their own nourishment. § 2

„He seized the lightning from Heaven and the scepter from the Tyrants.“

—  Anne Robert Jacques Turgot
Statement in Latin about Benjamin Franklin, as quoted in The Monthly Anthology, and Boston Review, Vol. X (March 1811) http://books.google.com/books?id=Q-ERAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA167&dq=%22Eripuit+Coelo+fulmen+sceptrumque+tyrannis%22&ei=YyJvScTUG5HKMuCSgMwM. This has also been quoted in several other variants of Latin or French expression, and been translated into English in various ways. Though it has probably incorrectly been cited as a remark of 1775, the earliest published reference to it appears to have occurred in April 1778. Variants: Eripuit fulmen coelo, mox sceptra tyrannis. Eripuit coelo fulmen sceptrumque tyrannis. He snatched lightning from the heavens and the scepter from the tyrants. He snatched lightning from the sky and scepters from tyrants.

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