Frases de Maria Montessori
Data de nascimento: 31. Agosto 1870
Data de falecimento: 6. Maio 1952
Maria Montessori foi uma educadora, médica, católica e pedagoga.
É conhecida pelo método educativo que desenvolveu e que ainda é usado hoje em dia em escolas públicas e privadas mundo afora.
Destacou a importância da liberdade, da actividade e do estímulo para o desenvolvimento físico e mental das crianças. Para ela, liberdade e disciplina se equilibrariam, não sendo possível conquistar uma sem a outra. Adoptou o princípio da auto-educação, que consiste na interferência mínima dos professores, pois a aprendizagem teria como base o espaço escolar e o material didáctico .
Citações Maria Montessori
„A paz não escraviza o homem, pelo contrário, ela o exalta. Não o humilha, muito ao contrário, ela o torna consciente de seu poder no universo. E porque está baseada na natureza humana, ela é um princípio universal e constante que vale para todo ser humano. É esse princípio que deve ser nosso guia na elaboração de uma ciência da paz e na educação dos homens para a paz.“
„A preparação que nosso método exige do professor é o auto-exame, a renúncia à tirania. Deve expelir do coração a ira e o orgulho, deve saber humilhar-se e revestir-se de caridade. Estas são as disposições que seu espírito deve adquiriri, a base da balança, o indispensável ponto de apoio para seu equilíbrio. Nisso consiste a preparação interior: o ponto de partida e a meta.“
„Such prizes and punishments are, if I may be allowed the expression, the bench of the soul, the instrument of slavery for the spirit.“
— Maria Montessori, The Montessori Method Scientific Pedagogy as Applied to Child Education in 'The Children's Houses' with Additions and Revisions by the Author
— Maria Montessori
Context: It seems as though a new epoch were in preparation, a truly human epoch, and as though the end had almost come of those evolutionary periods which sum up the history of the heroic struggles of humanity; an epoch in which an assured peace will promote the brotherhood of man, while morality and love will take their place as the highest form of human superiority. In such an epoch there will really be superior human beings, there will really be men strong in morality and in sentiment. Perhaps in this way the reign of woman in approaching, when the enigma of her anthropological superiority will be deciphered. Woman was always the custodian of human sentiment, morality and honour, and in these respects man always has yielded women the palm. Antropologia Pedagogica (1910), translated as Pedagogical Anthropology (1913), p. 259.
„If help and salvation are to come they can only come from the children, for the children are the makers of men.“
— Maria Montessori
Context: If help and salvation are to come they can only come from the children, for the children are the makers of men. The child is endowed with unknown powers, which can guide us to a radiant future. If what we really want is a new world, then education must take as its aim the development of these hidden possibilities. Part I : The Child's Part in World Reconstruction, p. 4.
— Maria Montessori
Context: To prepare teachers in the method of the experimental sciences is not an easy matter. When we shall have instructed them in anthropometry and psychometry in the most minute manner possible, we shall have only created machines, whose usefulness will be most doubtful. Indeed, if it is after this fashion that we are to initiate our teachers into experiment, we shall remain forever in the field of theory. The teachers of the old school, prepared according to the principles of metaphysical philosophy, understood the ideas of certain men regarded as authorities, and moved the muscles of speech in talking of them, and the muscles of the eye in reading their theories. Our scientific teachers, instead, are familiar with certain instruments and know how to move the muscles of the hand and arm in order to use these instruments; besides this, they have an intellectual preparation which consists of a series of typical tests, which they have, in a barren and mechanical way, learned how to apply. The difference is not substantial, for profound differences cannot exist in exterior technique alone, but lie rather within the inner man. Not with all our initiation into scientific experiment have we prepared new masters, for, after all, we have left them standing without the door of real experimental science; we have not admitted them to the noblest and most profound phase of such study, — to that experience which makes real scientists. Ch. 1 : A Critical Consideration of the New Pedagogy in its Relation to Modern Science, p. 7.
— Maria Montessori
Context: This is our mission: to cast a ray of light and pass on. I compare the effects of these first lessons the impressions of a solitary wanderer who is walking serene and happy in a shady grove, meditating; that is leaving his inner thought free to wander. Suddenly a church bell pealing out nearby recalls to himself; then he feels more keenly that peaceful bliss which had already been born, though dormant, within him. To stimulate life, leaving it free, however, to unfold itself, that is the first duty of the educator. For such a delicate mission great art is required to suggest the right moment and to limit intervention, last one should disturb or lead astray rather than help the soul which is coming to life and which will live by virtue of it's own efforts. This art must accompany the scientific method, because the simplicity of our lessons bears a great resemblance to experiments in experimental psychology. Ch. 8 : The Exercises, p. 141 Variant translation: This then is the first duty of an educator: to stir up life but leave it free to develop.
„The man who, through his own efforts, is able to perform all the actions necessary for his comfort and development in life, conquers himself, and in doing so multiplies his abilities and perfects himself as an individual.
We must make of the future generation, powerful men, and by that we mean men who are independent and free.“
— Maria Montessori
Context: Let us picture to ourselves a clever and proficient workman, capable, not only of producing much and perfect work, but of giving advice in his workshop, because of his ability to control and direct the general activity of the environment in which he works. The man who is thus master of his environment will be able to smile before the anger of others, showing that great mastery of himself which comes from consciousness of his ability to do things. We should not, however, be in the least surprised to know that in his home this capable workman scolded his wife if the soup was not to his taste, or not ready at the appointed time. In his home, he is no longer the capable workman; the skilled workman here is the wife, who serves him and prepares his food for him. He is a serene and pleasant man where he is powerful through being efficient, but is domineering where he is served. Perhaps if he should learn how to prepare his soup he might become a perfect man! The man who, through his own efforts, is able to perform all the actions necessary for his comfort and development in life, conquers himself, and in doing so multiplies his abilities and perfects himself as an individual. We must make of the future generation, powerful men, and by that we mean men who are independent and free. Ch. 5 : Discipline, p. 100.