Frases de Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz photo
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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Data de nascimento: 1. Julho 1646
Data de falecimento: 14. Novembro 1716

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz foi um filósofo, cientista, matemático, diplomata e bibliotecário alemão.

O uso de "função" como um termo matemático foi iniciado por Leibniz, numa carta de 1694, para designar uma quantidade relacionada a uma curva, tal como a sua inclinação em um ponto específico. É creditado a Leibniz e a Newton o desenvolvimento do cálculo moderno, em particular o desenvolvimento da integral e da regra do produto. Descreveu o primeiro sistema de numeração binário moderno , tal como o sistema numérico binário utilizado nos dias de hoje. Demonstrou genialidade também nos campos da lei, religião, política, história, literatura, lógica, metafísica e filosofia.

Obras

Discourse on Metaphysics
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Citações Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

„Now, as there is an infinity of possible universes in the Ideas of God, and as only one of them can exist, there must be a sufficient reason for God's choice, which determines him toward one rather than another. And this reason can be found only in the fitness, or the degrees of perfection, that these worlds contain, since each possible thing has the right to claim existence in proportion to the perfection it involves.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz

Or, comme il y a une infinité d'univers possibles dans les idées de Dieu, et qu'il n'en peut exister qu'un seul, il faut qu'il y ait une raison suffisante du choix de Dieu qui le détermine à l'un plutôt qu'à l'autre. Et cette raison ne peut se trouver que dans la convenance, dans les degrés de perfection que ces mondes contiennent, chaque possible ayant droit de prétendre à l'existence à mesure de la perfection qu'il enveloppe.
La monadologie (53 & 54).
The Monadology (1714)

„Thus it is in a simple substance, and not in a compound or in a machine, that perception must be sought for.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz

La monadologie (17).
The Monadology (1714)
Contexto: Moreover, it must be confessed that perception and that which depends upon it are inexplicable on mechanical grounds, that is to say, by means of figures and motions. And supposing there were a machine, so constructed as to think, feel, and have perception, it might be conceived as increased in size, while keeping the same proportions, so that one might go into it as into a mill. That being so, we should, on examining its interior, find only parts which work one upon another, and never anything by which to explain a perception. Thus it is in a simple substance, and not in a compound or in a machine, that perception must be sought for.

„Moreover, it must be confessed that perception and that which depends upon it are inexplicable on mechanical grounds, that is to say, by means of figures and motions.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz

La monadologie (17).
The Monadology (1714)
Contexto: Moreover, it must be confessed that perception and that which depends upon it are inexplicable on mechanical grounds, that is to say, by means of figures and motions. And supposing there were a machine, so constructed as to think, feel, and have perception, it might be conceived as increased in size, while keeping the same proportions, so that one might go into it as into a mill. That being so, we should, on examining its interior, find only parts which work one upon another, and never anything by which to explain a perception. Thus it is in a simple substance, and not in a compound or in a machine, that perception must be sought for.

„My philosophical views approach somewhat closely those of the late Countess of Conway“

—  Gottfried Leibniz

Letter to Thomas Burnet (1697), as quoted in Platonism, Aristotelianism and Cabalism in the Philosophy of Leibniz (1938) by Joseph Politella, p. 18
Contexto: My philosophical views approach somewhat closely those of the late Countess of Conway, and hold a middle position between Plato and Democritus, because I hold that all things take place mechanically as Democritus and Descartes contend against the views of Henry More and his followers, and hold too, nevertheless, that everything takes place according to a living principle and according to final causes — all things are full of life and consciousness, contrary to the views of the Atomists.

„TO LOVE is to find pleasure in the happiness of others.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz

"A Dialogue" (after 1695), as quoted in The Shorter Leibniz Texts (2006) http://books.google.com/books?id=oFoCY3xJ8nkC&dq edited by Lloyd H. Strickland, p. 170
Contexto: TO LOVE is to find pleasure in the happiness of others. Thus the habit of loving someone is nothing other than BENEVOLENCE by which we want the good of others, not for the profit that we gain from it, but because it is agreeable to us in itself.
CHARITY is a general benevolence. And JUSTICE is charity in accordance with wisdom. … so that one does not do harm to someone without necessity, and that one does as much good as one can, but especially where it is best employed.

„Everything that is possible demands to exist.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz

Omne possibile exigit existere.
De veritatibus primis (1686)

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„I have said more than once, that I hold space to be something purely relative, as time; an order of coexistences, as time is an order of successions.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz

J'ay marqué plus d'une fois, que je tenois l'espace pour quelque chose de purement relatif, comme le temps; pour un ordre des coëxistences, comme le temps est un ordre des successions.
Third letter http://www.physics.ubc.ca/~berciu/PHILIP/TEACHING/PHYS340/EXTRA/FILES/Leibniz-ClarkeA.pdf to Samuel Clarke, February 25, 1716

„Why is there anything at all rather than nothing whatsoever?“

—  Gottfried Leibniz

De rerum originatione radicali (1697); reprinted in God. Guil. Leibnitii Opera philosophica quae exstant latina, gallica, germanica omniaː 1 http://books.google.gr/books?id=Huv3Q0IimL0C&vq= (1840), p. 148
Cf. Martin Heidegger, What is Metaphysics? (1929)ː "Warum ist überhaupt Seiendes und nicht vielmehr Nichts? Das ist die Frage."
Original: (la) cur aliquid potius extiterit quam nihil

„Music is a hidden arithmetic exercise of the soul, which does not know that it is counting.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz

Letter to Christian Goldbach, April 17, 1712.
Arthur Schopenhauer paraphrased this quotation in the first book of Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung: Musica est exercitium metaphysices occultum nescientis se philosophari animi. (Music is a hidden metaphysical exercise of the soul, which does not know that it is philosophizing.)
Original: (la) Musica est exercitium arithmeticae occultum nescientis se numerare animi.

„Theologian: But what is to love?
Philosopher: To be delighted by the happiness of another.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz

Confessio philosophi (1673)
Original: (la) Theologus: Amare autem?
Philosophus: Felicitate alterius delectari.

„This miracle of analysis, this marvel of the world of ideas, an almost amphibian object between Being and Non-being that we call the imaginary number.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz

Ce miracle de l'Analyse, prodige du monde des idées, objet presque amphibie entre l'Être et le Non-être, que nous appelons racine imaginaire.
Quoted in Singularités : individus et relations dans le système de Leibniz (2003) by Christiane Frémont

„I am convinced that the unwritten knowledge scattered among men of different callings surpasses in quantity and in importance anything we find in books, and that the greater part of our wealth has yet to be recorded.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz

Pour ce qui est des connaissances non-écrites qui se trouvent dispersées parmi les hommes de différents professions, je suis persuadé qu’ils passent de beaucoup tant à l'égard de la multitude que de l'importance, tout ce qui se trouve marqué dans les livres, et que la meilleure partie de notre trésor n'est pas encore enregistrée.
Discours touchant la méthode de la certitude et de l'art d'inventer pour finir les disputes et pour faire en peu de temps de grands progrès (1688–1690)

„Nature does not make leaps.“

—  Gottfried Leibniz

La nature ne fait jamais des sauts.
Avant-propos to Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain (1704).
A later, more famous Latin version — "Natura non facit saltus" — is from the Philosophia Botanica (1751) by Linnaeus.
A variant translation is "natura non saltum facit" (literally, "Nature does not make a jump") ([Ökonomische Theorie und christlicher Glaube, Andrew, Britton, Peter H., Sedgwick, Burghard, Bock, LIT Verlag Münster, 2008, 978-3-8258-0162-5, 289, https://books.google.com/books?id=goW6JsEUz4EC] Extract of page 289 https://books.google.com/books?id=goW6JsEUz4EC&pg=PA289).

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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