Frases de Leszek Kołakowski

Leszek Kołakowski photo
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Leszek Kołakowski

Data de nascimento: 23. Outubro 1927
Data de falecimento: 17. Julho 2009

Leszek Kołakowski foi um eminente filósofo e historiador polonês. Foi mais conhecido por suas análises críticas do marxismo, particularmente por sua famosa obra histórica em três volumes, As principais correntes do marxismo.


Main Currents of Marxism
Leszek Kołakowski

Citações Leszek Kołakowski

„O marxismo tem sido a maior fantasia do nosso século. Foi um sonho que oferecia a perspectiva de uma sociedade de perfeita unidade, na qual todas as aspirações humanas seriam cumpridas e todos os valores reconciliados.“

—  Leszek Kołakowski, livro Main Currents of Marxism

Marxism has been the greatest fantasy of our century. It was a dream offering the prospect of a society of perfect unity, in which all human aspirations would be fulfilled and all values reconciled.
"Main Currents Of Marxism" (1978) - p.1206 - Traduzido por P. S. Falla, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 2005, ISBN 978-0-393-32943-8

„Aprendemos história não para saber como nos comportar ou como ter sucesso, mas para saber quem somos.“

—  Leszek Kołakowski

We learn history not in order to know how to behave or how to succeed, but to know who we are.
The Idolatry of Politics, palestra dada na Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities (1986)

„É trivialmente verdade que muitas vezes as bênçãos e os horrores do progresso estão inseparavelmente ligados uns aos outros, assim como os prazeres e as misérias do tradicionalismo.“

—  Leszek Kołakowski

It is trivially true that very often the blessings and the horrors of progress are inseparably tied to each other, as are the enjoyments and the miseries of traditionalism
Modernity on Endless Trial - cap. 1 - University Of Chicago Press; New edition edition (23 Jun. 1997) - ISBN-13: 978-0226450469

„Fascist was, by definition, a person who happened to have been in jail in a communist country.“

—  Leszek Kolakowski

"My Correct Views on Everything" (1974)
Contexto: When I collect my experiences, I notice that fascist is a person who holds one of the following beliefs (by way of example): 1) That people should wash themselves, rather than go dirty; 2) that freedom of the press in America is preferable to the ownership of the whole press by one ruling party; 3) that people should not be jailed for their opinions. both communist and anti-communist - 4), that racial criteria, in favour of either whites or blacks, are inadvisable in admission to Universities; 5 ) that torture is condemnable, no matter who applies it. (Roughly speaking "fascist" was the same as "liberal".) Fascist was, by definition, a person who happened to have been in jail in a communist country. The refugees from Czechoslovakia in 1968 were sometimes met in Germany by very progressive and absolutely revolutionary leftists with placards saying "fascism will not pass".

„Marxism has been the greatest fantasy of our century.“

—  Leszek Kolakowski

Epilogue, p. 1206
Main Currents Of Marxism (1978)
Contexto: Marxism has been the greatest fantasy of our century. It was a dream offering the prospect of a society of perfect unity, in which all human aspirations would be fulfilled and all values reconciled.

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„The proletariat thus shared its dictatorship with nobody. As to the question of the "majority", this never troubled Lenin much. In an article "Constitutional Illusions" (Aug. 1917; Works, vol. 25, p. 201) he wrote: "in time of revolution it is not enough to ascertain the ‘ will of the majority’ – you must prove to be stronger at the decisive moment and at the decisive place; you must win … We have seen innumerable examples of the better organized, more politically conscious and better armed minority forcing its will upon the majority and defeating it." (pg. 503) Trotsky, however, answers questions [in The Defence of Terrorism] that Lenin evaded or ignored. "Where is your guarantee, certain wise men ask us, that it is just your party that expresses the interests of historical development? Destroying or driving underground the other parties, you have thereby prevented their political competition with you, and consequently you have deprived yourselves of the possibility of testing your line of action." Trotsky replies: "This idea is dictated by a purely liberal conception of the course of the revolution. In a period in which all antagonisms assume an open character; and the political struggle swiftly passes into a civil war, the ruling party has sufficient material standard by which to test its line of action, without the possible circulation of Menshevik papers. Noske crushes the Communists, but they grow. We have suppressed the Mensheviks and the S. R. s [Socialist Republics] … and they have disappeared. This criterion is sufficient for us" (p. 101). This is one of the most enlightening theoretical formulations of Bolshevism, from which it appears that the "rightness" of a historical movement or a state is to be judged by whether its use of violence is successful. Noske did not succeed in crushing the German Communists, but Hitler did; it would thus follow from Trotsky’ s rule that Hitler "expressed the interests of historical development". Stalin liquidated the Trotskyists in Russia, and they disappeared – so evidently Stalin, and not Trotsky, stood for historical progress.“

—  Leszek Kolakowski

pg. 510
Main Currents Of Marxism (1978), Three Volume edition, Volume II, The Golden Age

„To prevent the starving peasants from fleeing to the towns an internal passport system was introduced and unauthorized change of residence was made punishable with imprisonment. Peasants were not allowed passports at all, and were therefore tied to the soil as in the worst days of feudal serfdom: this state of things was not altered until the 1970s. The concentration camps filled with new hordes of prisoners sentenced to hard labour. The object of destroying the peasants’ independence and herding them into collective farms was to create a population of slaves, the benefit of whose labour would accrue to industry. The immediate effect was to reduce Soviet agriculture to a state of decline from which it has not yet recovered, despite innumerable measures of reorganization and reform. At the time of Stalin’ s death, almost a quarter of a century after mass collectivization was initiated, the output of grain per head of population was still below the 1913 level; yet throughout this period, despite misery and starvation, large quantities of farm produce were exported all over the world for the sake of Soviet industry. The terror and oppression of those years cannot be expressed merely by the figures for loss of human life, enormous as these are; perhaps the most vivid picture of what collectivization meant is in Vasily Grossman’ s posthumous novel Forever Flowing.“

—  Leszek Kolakowski

pg. 39
Main Currents Of Marxism (1978), Three Volume edition, Volume III: The Breakdown

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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