Frases de Julian Jaynes

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Julian Jaynes

Data de nascimento: 27. Fevereiro 1920
Data de falecimento: 21. Novembro 1997

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Julian Jaynes foi um psicólogo, filósofo e escritor estaduniense. Em 1976, publicou o livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind onde apresentou a teoria da mente bicameral, pela qual, a mente dos homens primitivos apresentava respostas automáticas não conscientes. Incapazes de realizar a metaconsciência, esses homens antigos tinham seu comportamento guiado por volições ou comandos neurológicos não conscientes, apresentados como vozes ou alucinações auditivas.

O conceito da mente bicameral de Julian Jaynes foi explorado na série de televisão americana Westworld, desenvolvida por Jonathan Nolan e Lisa Joy e transmitida pela emissora HBO.

Citações Julian Jaynes

„It is something of a lovely surprise that the irregular conjugation of our most nondescript verb is thus a record of a time when man had no independent word for 'existence' and could only say that something 'grows' or that it “breathes.”“

—  Julian Jaynes, livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), Context: It is not always obvious that metaphor has played this all-important function. But this is because the concrete metaphiers become hidden in phonemic change, leaving the words to exist on their own. Even such an unmetaphorical-sounding word as the verb 'to be' was generated from a metaphor. It comes from the Sanskrit bhu, “to grow, or make grow,” while the English forms 'am' and 'is' have evolved from the same root as the Sanskrit asmi, “to breathe.” It is something of a lovely surprise that the irregular conjugation of our most nondescript verb is thus a record of a time when man had no independent word for 'existence' and could only say that something 'grows' or that it “breathes.” Book I, Chapter 2, p. 51

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„Subjective conscious mind is an analog of what is called the real world.“

—  Julian Jaynes, livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), Context: Subjective conscious mind is an analog of what is called the real world. It is built up with a vocabulary or lexical field whose terms are all metaphors or analogs of behavior in the physical world. Its reality is of the same order as mathematics. It allows us to shortcut behavioral processes and arrive at more adequate decisions. Like mathematics, it is an operator rather than a thing or repository. And it is intimately bound up with volition and decision. Book I, Chapter 2, p. 55

„Our sense of justice depends on our sense of time.“

—  Julian Jaynes, livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), Context: Our sense of justice depends on our sense of time. Justice is a phenomenon only of consciousness, because time spread out in a spatial succession is its very essence. Book II, Chapter 5, p. 280

„Reading in the third millennium B.C. may therefore have been a matter of hearing the cuneiform,“

—  Julian Jaynes, livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), Context: Reading in the third millennium B. C. may therefore have been a matter of hearing the cuneiform, that is, hallucinating the speech from looking at its picture symbols, rather than visual reading of syllables in our sense. Book II, Chapter 2, p. 182

„The Trojan War was directed by hallucinations.“

—  Julian Jaynes, livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), Context: The Trojan War was directed by hallucinations. And the soldiers who were so directed were not at all like us. They were noble automatons who knew not what they did. Book I, Chapter 3, p. 75

„In a sense, we have become our own gods.“

—  Julian Jaynes, livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), Context: And when it is suggested that the inward feelings of power or inward monitions or losses of judgement are the germs out of which the divine machinery developed, I return that truth is just the reverse, that the presence of voices which had to be obeyed were the absolute prerequisite to the conscious stage of mind in which it is the self that is responsible and can debate within itself, can order and direct, and that the creation of such a self is the product of culture. In a sense, we have become our own gods. Book I, Chapter 3, p. 79

„There is a complete lack of reference to business profits or loss in any of the cuneiform tablets that have been so far translated.“

—  Julian Jaynes, livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), Context: Such trade was not, however, a true market. There were no prices under the pressures of supply and demand, no buying and selling, and no money. It was trade in the sense of equivalences established by divine decree. There is a complete lack of reference to business profits or loss in any of the cuneiform tablets that have been so far translated. Book II, Chapter 3, p. 210 (See also: Karl Polanyi)

„Poetry began with the bicameral mind.“

—  Julian Jaynes, livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), Context: I shall state my thesis plain. The first poets were gods. Poetry began with the bicameral mind. Book III, Chapter 3, p. 361

„Consciousness come after language!“

—  Julian Jaynes, livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), Context: For if consciousness is based on language, then it follows that it is of much more recent origin than has been heretofore supposed. Consciousness come after language! The implications of such a position are extremely serious. Book I, Chapter 2, p. 66

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„Behavior now must be changed from within the new consciousness rather than from Mosaic laws carving behavior from without.“

—  Julian Jaynes, livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), Context: Behavior now must be changed from within the new consciousness rather than from Mosaic laws carving behavior from without. Sin and desire are now within conscious desire and conscious contrition, rather than in the external behaviors of the decalogue and the penances of temple sacrifice and community punishment. The divine kingdom to be regained is psychological not physical. It is metaphorical not literal. It is "within" not in extenso. Book III, Chapter 1, p. 318

„And in this development lies the origin of civilization.“

—  Julian Jaynes, livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), Context: The bicameral mind with its controlling gods was evolved as a final stage of the evolution of language. And in this development lies the origin of civilization. Book I, Chapter 6, p. 126

„The language of men was involved with only one hemisphere in order to leave the other free for the language of the gods.“

—  Julian Jaynes, livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), Book I, Chapter 5, p. 103-104

„There is no such thing as a complete consciousness.“

—  Julian Jaynes, livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), Book II, Chapter 5, p. 281

„Paradise Lost, A further observation could be made upon the story of the Fall and how it is possible to look upon it as a myth of the breakdown of the bicameral mind.“

—  Julian Jaynes, livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), Book II, Chapter 6, p. 299 (See also: John Milton)

„The central assertion of this view, I repeat, is that each new stage of words literally created new perceptions and attentions, and such new perceptions and attentions resulted in important cultural changes which are reflected in the archaeological record.“

—  Julian Jaynes, livro The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), Book I, Chapter 6, p. 132 (Italics as per text...)

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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