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James Anthony Froude

Data de nascimento: 23. Abril 1818
Data de falecimento: 20. Outubro 1894
Outros nomes: James Froude

James Anthony Froude foi um controverso historiador, novelista e biógrafo inglês. Após sua participação no Movimento de Oxford, de caráter anglo-católico, Froude decidiu virar clérigo, mas dúvidas em relação às doutrinas da Igreja Anglicana, como especifica em seu polêmico romance de 1849 The Nemesis of Faith, o fizeram desistir de uma carreira religiosa. Decidiu então virar historiador, se tornando um dos mais conhecidos de seu tempo a partir da publicação de History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada.

Obras

The Nemesis of Faith
James Anthony Froude

Citações James Anthony Froude

„Os animais selvagens nunca matam por diversão. O homem é a única criatura para quem a tortura e a morte de seus semelhantes são divertidas.“

—  James Anthony Froude

Fonte: Citações sobre a tortura http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/torture_4.html
Fonte: Citação de James Froude http://www.quoteworld.org/quotes/5098
Fonte: Citações de James Froude http://thinkexist.com/quotation/wild_animals_never_kill_for_sport-man_is_the_only/10823.html

„O medo é pai da crueldade.“

—  James Anthony Froude

Short Studies on Great Subjects - página 331, James Anthony Froude m.a. - 1877
Fonte: Citações de James Froude http://thinkexist.com/quotation/wild_animals_never_kill_for_sport-man_is_the_only/10823.html

„Você não pode sonhar para si mesmo em ser um personagem. Você deve martelar e moldar um você mesmo“

—  James Anthony Froude, livro The Nemesis of Faith

You cannot dream yourself into a character. You must hammer and forge yourself one
The nemesis of faith‎ - Página 4 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=E783AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA4, James Anthony Froude - J. Chapman, 1849 - 227 páginas
Fonte: Citações de James Froude http://thinkexist.com/quotation/wild_animals_never_kill_for_sport-man_is_the_only/10823.html
Fonte: Citação de James Froude http://www.quotationspage.com/quote/2388.html

„A idade não nos torna infantis, como dizem alguns; ela nos faz encontrar nossas verdadeiras crianças.“

—  James Anthony Froude

Age does not make us childish, as some say; it finds us true children
Short studies on great subjects, Volume 2‎ - Página 334, James Anthony Froude - Scribner, Armstrong & Co., 1872
Fonte: Citações de James Froude http://thinkexist.com/quotation/wild_animals_never_kill_for_sport-man_is_the_only/10823.html

„A instrução não previne desperdício de tempo ou erros; e os erros por si próprios são geralmente os melhores professores de todos.“

—  James Anthony Froude

Instruction does not prevent waste of time or mistakes; and mistakes themselves are often the best teachers of all.
Inaugural address delivered to the University of St. Andrews, March 19, 1869‎ - Página 8 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=1NFBAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA8, James Anthony Froude - Longmans, 1869 - 41 páginas
Fonte: Citações de James Froude http://thinkexist.com/quotation/wild_animals_never_kill_for_sport-man_is_the_only/10823.html

„A experiência ensina devagar e ao custo de erros.“

—  James Anthony Froude

Experience teaches slowly and at the cost of mistakes.
Short Studies on Great Subjects - página 330, James Anthony Froude m.a. - 1877
Fonte: Citações de James Froude http://thinkexist.com/quotation/wild_animals_never_kill_for_sport-man_is_the_only/10823.html

„The first state of mankind is the unreflecting state. The nature is undeveloped, looking neither before nor after; it acts on the impulse of the moment, and is troubled with no weary retrospect, nor with any notions of a remote future which present conduct can affect; and knowing neither good nor evil, better or worse, it does simply what it desires, and is happy in it. It is the state analogous to the early childhood of each of us, and is represented in the common theory of Paradise — the state of innocence.“

—  James Anthony Froude, livro The Nemesis of Faith

Fragments of Markham's notes
The Nemesis of Faith (1849)
Contexto: Our instinct has outrun our theory in this matter; for while we still insist upon free will and sin, we make allowance for individuals who have gone wrong, on the very ground of provocation, of temptation, of bad education, of infirm character. By and by philosophy will follow, and so at last we may hope for a true theory of morals. It is curious to watch, in the history of religious beliefs, the gradual elimination of this monster of moral evil. The first state of mankind is the unreflecting state. The nature is undeveloped, looking neither before nor after; it acts on the impulse of the moment, and is troubled with no weary retrospect, nor with any notions of a remote future which present conduct can affect; and knowing neither good nor evil, better or worse, it does simply what it desires, and is happy in it. It is the state analogous to the early childhood of each of us, and is represented in the common theory of Paradise — the state of innocence.

„When Alison Balfour's life was looked into, no evidence could be found connecting her either with the particular offence or with witchcraft in general; but it was enough in these matters to be accused.“

—  James Anthony Froude

The Influence of the Reformation on the Scottish Character (1865)
Contexto: It remains a lesson to all time, that goodness, though the indispensable adjunct to knowledge, is no substitute for it; that when conscience undertakes to dictate beyond its province, the result is only the more monstrous.
It is well that we should look this matter in the face; and as particular stories leave more impression than general statements, I will mention one, perfectly well authenticated, which I take from the official report of the proceedings:—Towards the end of 1593 there was trouble in the family of the Earl of Orkney. His brother laid a plot to murder him, and was said to have sought the help of a 'notorious witch' called Alison Balfour http://www.orkneyjar.com/folklore/witchcraft/balfour.htm. When Alison Balfour's life was looked into, no evidence could be found connecting her either with the particular offence or with witchcraft in general; but it was enough in these matters to be accused. She swore she was innocent; but her guilt was only held to be aggravated by perjury. She was tortured again and again. Her legs were put in the caschilaws — an iron frame which was gradually heated till it burned into the flesh — but no confession could be wrung from her. The caschilaws failed utterly, and something else had to be tried. She had a husband, a son, and a daughter, a child seven years old. As her own sufferings did not work upon her, she might be touched, perhaps, by the sufferings of those who were dear to her. They were brought into court, and placed at her side; and the husband first was placed in the 'lang irons' — some accursed instrument; I know not what. Still the devil did not yield. She bore this; and her son was next operated on. The boy's legs were set in 'the boot,' — the iron boot you may have heard of. The wedges were driven in, which, when forced home, crushed the very bone and marrow. Fifty-seven mallet strokes were delivered upon the wedges. Yet this, too, failed. There was no confession yet. So, last of all, the little daughter was taken. There was a machine called the piniwinkies — a kind of thumbscrew, which brought blood from under the finger nails, with a pain successfully terrible. These things were applied to the poor child's hands, and the mother's constancy broke down, and she said she would admit anything they wished. She confessed her witchcraft — so tried, she would have confessed to the seven deadly sins — and then she was burned, recalling her confession, and with her last breath protesting her innocence.
It is due to the intelligence of the time to admit that after this her guilt was doubted, and such vicarious means of extorting confession do not seem to have been tried again. Yet the men who inflicted these tortures would have borne them all themselves sooner than have done any act which they consciously knew to be wrong. They did not know that the instincts of humanity were more sacred than the logic of theology, and in fighting against the devil they were themselves doing the devil's work. We should not attempt to apologise for these things, still less to forget them. No martyrs ever suffered to instil into mankind a more wholesome lesson — more wholesome, or one more hard to learn. The more conscientious men are, the more difficult it is for them to understand that in their most cherished convictions, when they pass beyond the limits where the wise and good of all sorts agree, they may be the victims of mere delusion. Yet, after all, and happily, such cases were but few, and affected but lightly the general condition of the people.

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„Say not, say not, it is but a choice which they have made; and an immortality of glory in heaven shall reward them for what they have sacrificed on earth. It may be so; but they do not ask for it. They are what they are from the Divine power which is in them, and you would never hear their complainings if the grave was the gate of annihilation.“

—  James Anthony Froude, livro The Nemesis of Faith

Confessions Of A Sceptic
The Nemesis of Faith (1849)
Contexto: Once in our lives we have all to choose. More or less we have all felt once the same emotions. We have not always been what the professions make of us. Nature made us men, and she surrenders not her children without a struggle. I will go back to my story now with but this one word, that it is these sons of genius, and the fate they meet with, which is to me the one sole evidence that there is more in "this huge state" than what is seen, and that in very truth the soul of man is not a thing which comes and goes, is builded and decays like the elemental frame in which it is set to dwell, but a very living force, a very energy of God's organic Will, which rules and moulds this universe.
For what are they? Say not, say not, it is but a choice which they have made; and an immortality of glory in heaven shall reward them for what they have sacrificed on earth. It may be so; but they do not ask for it. They are what they are from the Divine power which is in them, and you would never hear their complainings if the grave was the gate of annihilation.

„People canvass up and down the value and utility of Christianity, and none of them seem to see that it was the common channel towards which all the great streams of thought in the old world were tending, and that in some form or other when they came to unite it must have been.“

—  James Anthony Froude, livro The Nemesis of Faith

Fragments of Markham's notes
The Nemesis of Faith (1849)
Contexto: People canvass up and down the value and utility of Christianity, and none of them seem to see that it was the common channel towards which all the great streams of thought in the old world were tending, and that in some form or other when they came to unite it must have been. That it crystallized round a particular person may have been an accident; but in its essence, as soon as the widening intercourse of the nations forced the Jewish mind into contact with the Indian and the Persian and the Grecian, such a religion was absolutely inevitable.
It was the development of Judaism in being the fulfilment of the sacrificial theory, and the last and purest conception of a personal God lying close above the world, watching, guiding, directing, interfering. Its object was no longer the narrow one of the temporal interests of a small people. The chrysalis had burst its shell, and the presiding care extended to all mankind, caring not now for bodies only but for souls. It was the development of Parsism in settling finally the vast question of the double principle, the position of the evil spirit, his history, and the method of his defeat; while Zoroaster's doctrine of a future state was now for the first time explained and justified; and his invisible world of angels and spirits, and the hierarchies of the seven heavens, were brought in subjection to the same one God of the Jews.

„In the strength of my own soul, for myself, at least, I would say boldly, rather let me bear the consequences of my own acts myself, even if it be eternal vengeance, and God requires it, than allow the shadow of my sin to fall upon the innocent.“

—  James Anthony Froude, livro The Nemesis of Faith

Letter X
The Nemesis of Faith (1849)
Contexto: To suppose that by our disobedience we have taken something away from God, in the loss of which He suffers, for which He requires satisfaction, and that this satisfaction has been made to Him by the cross sacrifice (as if doing wrong were incurring a debt to Him, which somehow must be paid, though it matters not by whom), is so infinitely derogatory to His majesty, to every idea which I can form of His nature, that to believe it in any such sense as this confounds and overwhelms me. In the strength of my own soul, for myself, at least, I would say boldly, rather let me bear the consequences of my own acts myself, even if it be eternal vengeance, and God requires it, than allow the shadow of my sin to fall upon the innocent.

„Now, to a single-minded man, who is either brave enough or reckless enough to surrender himself wholly to one idea, and look neither right nor left, but only forward, what earthly consequences may follow is not material.“

—  James Anthony Froude, livro The Nemesis of Faith

Confessions Of A Sceptic
The Nemesis of Faith (1849)
Contexto: Now, to a single-minded man, who is either brave enough or reckless enough to surrender himself wholly to one idea, and look neither right nor left, but only forward, what earthly consequences may follow is not material. Persecution strengthens him; and so he is sure he is right, whether his course end in a prison or on a throne is no matter at all. But men of this calibre are uncommon in any age or in any country — very uncommon in this age and this country.

„The absolute worth of goodness is seen as distinct from power; such beings as these demon gods could not he the highest beings.“

—  James Anthony Froude, livro The Nemesis of Faith

Fragments of Markham's notes
The Nemesis of Faith (1849)
Contexto: It is an old remark, that as men are, such they paint their gods; and as in themselves the passionate, or demonic nature, long preponderated, so the gods they worshipped were demons like themselves, jealous, capricious, exacting, revengeful, the figures which fill the old mythologies, and appear partly in the Old Testament. They feared them as they feared the powerful of their own race, and sought to propitiate them by similar offerings and services.
Go on, and now we find ourselves on a third stage; but now fast rising into a clearing atmosphere. The absolute worth of goodness is seen as distinct from power; such beings as these demon gods could not he the highest beings. Good and evil could not coexist in one Supreme; absolutely different in nature, they could not have a common origin; the moral world is bipolar, and we have dualism, the two principles, coeternal, coequal.
By and by, again, the horizon widens. The ultimate identity of might and right glimmers out feebly in the Zenda Vesta as the stars come out above the mountains when we climb out of the mist of the valleys. The evil spirit is no longer the absolute independent Ahriman; but Ahriman and Ormuzd are but each a dependent spirit; and an awful formless, boundless figure, the eternal, the illimitable, looms out from the abyss behind them, presently to degrade still farther the falling Ahriman into a mere permitted Satan, finally to be destroyed.

„Our characters change as world eras change, as our features change, slowly from day to day.“

—  James Anthony Froude, livro The Nemesis of Faith

Arthur's commentary
The Nemesis of Faith (1849)
Contexto: Our characters change as world eras change, as our features change, slowly from day to day. Nothing is sudden in this world. Inch hy inch; drop by drop; line by line. Even when great convulsions shatter down whole nations, cities, monarchies, systems, human fortunes, still they are but the finish, the last act of the same long preparing, slowly devouring change, in which the tide of human affairs for ever ebbs and flows, without haste, and without rest.

„Life complete, is lived in two worlds; the one inside, and the one outside.“

—  James Anthony Froude, livro The Nemesis of Faith

Confessions Of A Sceptic
The Nemesis of Faith (1849)
Contexto: Life complete, is lived in two worlds; the one inside, and the one outside. The first half of our days is spent wholly in the former; the second, if it is what it ought to be, wholly in the latter — till our education is almost finished; theories are only words to us, and church controversy is not of things but of shadows of things. Through all that time life and thought beyond our own experience is but a great game played out by book actors; we do not think, we only think we think, and we have been too busy in our own line to have a notion really of what is beyond it. But while so much of our talk is so unreal, our own selves, our own risings, fallings, aspirings, resolutions, misgivings, these are real enough to us; these are our hidden life, our sanctuary of our own mysteries.

„All, all nature is harmonious, and must and shall be harmony for ever; even we, poor men, with our wild ways and frantic wrongs, and crimes, and follies, to the beings out beyond us and above us, seem, doubtless, moving on our own way under the broad dominion of universal law. The wretched only feel their wretchedness: in the universe all is beautiful.“

—  James Anthony Froude, livro The Nemesis of Faith

Arthur's commentary
The Nemesis of Faith (1849)
Contexto: All, all nature is harmonious, and must and shall be harmony for ever; even we, poor men, with our wild ways and frantic wrongs, and crimes, and follies, to the beings out beyond us and above us, seem, doubtless, moving on our own way under the broad dominion of universal law. The wretched only feel their wretchedness: in the universe all is beautiful. Ay, to those lofty beings, be they who they will, who look down from their starry thrones on the strange figures flitting to and fro over this earth of ours, the wild recklessness of us mortals with each other may well lose its painful interest. Why should our misdoings cause more grief to them than those of the lower animals to ourselves? Pain and pleasure are but forms of consciousness; we feel them for ourselves, and for those who are like ourselves. To man alone the doings of man are wrong; the evil which is with us dies out beyond us; we are but a part of nature, and blend with the rest in her persevering beauty.
Poor consolers are such thoughts, for they are but thoughts, and, alas! our pain we feel.

„Once in our lives we have all to choose. More or less we have all felt once the same emotions.“

—  James Anthony Froude, livro The Nemesis of Faith

Confessions Of A Sceptic
The Nemesis of Faith (1849)
Contexto: Once in our lives we have all to choose. More or less we have all felt once the same emotions. We have not always been what the professions make of us. Nature made us men, and she surrenders not her children without a struggle. I will go back to my story now with but this one word, that it is these sons of genius, and the fate they meet with, which is to me the one sole evidence that there is more in "this huge state" than what is seen, and that in very truth the soul of man is not a thing which comes and goes, is builded and decays like the elemental frame in which it is set to dwell, but a very living force, a very energy of God's organic Will, which rules and moulds this universe.
For what are they? Say not, say not, it is but a choice which they have made; and an immortality of glory in heaven shall reward them for what they have sacrificed on earth. It may be so; but they do not ask for it. They are what they are from the Divine power which is in them, and you would never hear their complainings if the grave was the gate of annihilation.

„Belief is the result of the proportion, whatever it he, in which the many elements which go to make the human being are combined.“

—  James Anthony Froude, livro The Nemesis of Faith

Confessions Of A Sceptic
The Nemesis of Faith (1849)
Contexto: Belief is the result of the proportion, whatever it he, in which the many elements which go to make the human being are combined. In some the grosser nature preponderates; they believe largely in their stomachs, in the comforts and conveniences of life, and being of such kind, so long as these are not threatened, they gravitate steadily towards the earth. Numerically this is the largest class of believers, with very various denominations indeed; bearing the names of every faith beneath the sky, and composing the conservative elements in them, and therefore commonly persons of much weight in established systems. But they are what I have called them: their hearts are where I said they were, and as such interests are commonly selfish, and self separates instead of unites, they are not generally powerful against any heavy trial. Others of keener susceptibility are yet volatile, with slight power of continuance, and fly from attraction to attraction in the current of novelty. Others of stronger temper gravitate more slowly, but combine more firmly, and only disunite again when the idea or soul of the body into which they form dies out, or they fall under the influence of some very attractive force indeed. It may be doubted, indeed, whether a body which is really organised by a living idea can lose a healthy member except by violence.

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