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Eric Kandel

Data de nascimento: 7. Novembro 1929

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Eric Richard Kandel é um neurocientista austríaco, naturalizado estadunidense.

Foi agraciado, juntamente com o sueco Arvid Carlsson e com o estadunidense Paul Greengard, com o Nobel de Fisiologia ou Medicina de 2000, por descobertas envolvendo a transmissão de sinais entre células nervosas no cérebro humano.

Kandel formou-se médico, especializou-se em psiquiatria, mas abandonou a clínica para se dedicar às neurociências. Trabalhando, por 45 anos, com um organismo muito simples - Aplysia californica, o nobel de medicina revelou aspectos fundamentais do processo de formação de memórias. Kandel acredita "que a integração da psiquiatria com a biologia molecular trará uma compreensão mais completa da mente humana e estratégias terapêuticas mais eficazes".

Citações Eric Kandel

„Libet could predict what a person would do before the person was actually aware of having decided to do it.“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: By merely observing the electrical activity in the brain, Libet could predict what a person would do before the person was actually aware of having decided to do it. This finding caused philosophers of mind to ask: If the choice is determined in the brain before we decide to act, where is free will?... choice in action, as in perception, may reflect the importance of unconscious inference. Libet proposes that... just before the action is initiated, consciousness is recruited to approve or veto the action.

„What strategy does the brain use to read itself out?“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: What strategy does the brain use to read itself out? That question, which is central to the unitary nature of conscious experience, remains one of the many unresolved mysteries of the new science of mind.

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„Every time I embarked on a new course, there were well-meaning people... who advised against it.“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: I have at times felt alone, uncertain, without a well-trodden path to follow. Every time I embarked on a new course, there were well-meaning people... who advised against it. I had to learn early on to be comfortable with insecurity and to trust my own judgement on key issues.

„Each sensory system first analyzes and deconstructs, then restructures the raw, incoming information to its own built-in connections and rules“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: Each sensory system first analyzes and deconstructs, then restructures the raw, incoming information to its own built-in connections and rules—shades of Immanuel Kant.

„I was astonished to discover that“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: I was astonished to discover that working in the laboratory—doing science in collaboration with interesting and creative people—is dramatically different from taking courses and reading about science.

„Birds in which spatial memory is particularly important“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: Birds in which spatial memory is particularly important—those that store food at a large number of sites, for example—have larger hippocampuses than other birds.... London taxi drivers have a larger hippocampus than others the same age.... the size of their hippocampus continues to increase with time on the job.

„London taxi drivers have a larger hippocampus“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: Birds in which spatial memory is particularly important—those that store food at a large number of sites, for example—have larger hippocampuses than other birds.... London taxi drivers have a larger hippocampus than others the same age.... the size of their hippocampus continues to increase with time on the job.

„I owe my existence in the United States to the generosity of the Viennese Kultusgemeinde.“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: The Viennese Kultusgemeinde... was going bankrupt... European governments typically compensate Jewish agencies... but the Austrian government's compensation was not adequate.... I owe my existence in the United States to the generosity of the Viennese Kultusgemeinde.

Publicidade

„As astronomy and physics inspired the Enlightenment, so biology inspired Modernism.“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: As astronomy and physics inspired the Enlightenment, so biology inspired Modernism.... This new view led to a reexamination in art of the biological nature of human existence, as evident in Édouard Manet's Déjeuner sur l’Herbe... Manet's painting... reveals a theme... the complex relationship between the sexes and between fantasy and reality.... also startlingly modern because of its style. Several decades before Cézanne began to collapse three dimension into two, Manet here had already flattened the viewer's sense of perspective...

„The third great revolution, the Freudian revolution of Vienna 1900, revealed that we do not consciously control our own actions but are instead driven by unconscious motives. This... later led to the idea that human creativity... stems from conscious access to underlying, unconscious forces.“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: The Copernican revolution... revealed that the earth is not the center of the universe... The second, the Darwinian revolution... revealed that we are not created divinely or uniquely but instead evolved from simpler animals by a process of natural selection. The third great revolution, the Freudian revolution of Vienna 1900, revealed that we do not consciously control our own actions but are instead driven by unconscious motives. This... later led to the idea that human creativity... stems from conscious access to underlying, unconscious forces.

„As knowledge advances and scientific disciplines change, so do the disciplines impinging on them.“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: As knowledge advances and scientific disciplines change, so do the disciplines impinging on them. Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis, and the New Biology of Mind (2008)

„We did not realize that the hippocampus is concerned with perception of the environment and therefore represents multisensory experience“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: We did not realize that the hippocampus is concerned with perception of the environment and therefore represents multisensory experience...

Publicidade

„Transferring the receptor from a social worm to a solitary worm makes the solitary worm social.“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: Cori Bargmann... has studied two variants of C. elegans... The only difference between the two is one amino acid in an otherwise shared receptor protein. Transferring the receptor from a social worm to a solitary worm makes the solitary worm social.

„The realization that our mental functioning is largely irrational was arrived at by several thinkers at the same time“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: The realization that our mental functioning is largely irrational was arrived at by several thinkers at the same time, including Friedrich Nietzsche... Freud, who was much influenced by both Darwin and Nietzsche... was its most profound and articulate exponent.... Schnitzler, Klimt, Kokoschka, and Schiele also discovered and explored new aspects of our unconscious mental life. They understood women better than Freud... and they saw more clearly than Freud the importance of an infant's bonding to its mother. They even realized the significance of the aggressive instinct earlier than Freud did.... Plato discussed unconscious knowledge... pointing out that much of our knowledge is inherent in the psyche in latent form.... Hermann von Helmholtz... advanced the idea that the unconscious plays a critical role in human visual perception.

„The remarkable insight that characterized Klimt's later work was contemporaneous with Freud's psychological studies and presaged the inward turn that would pervade all fields of inquiry“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: The remarkable insight that characterized Klimt's later work was contemporaneous with Freud's psychological studies and presaged the inward turn that would pervade all fields of inquiry in Vienna in 1900. This period... was characterized by the attempt to make a sharp break with the past and to explore new forms of expression in art, architecture, psychology, literature, and music. It spawned an ongoing pursuit to link these disciplines.

„It spawned an ongoing pursuit to link these disciplines.“

—  Eric R. Kandel
Context: The remarkable insight that characterized Klimt's later work was contemporaneous with Freud's psychological studies and presaged the inward turn that would pervade all fields of inquiry in Vienna in 1900. This period... was characterized by the attempt to make a sharp break with the past and to explore new forms of expression in art, architecture, psychology, literature, and music. It spawned an ongoing pursuit to link these disciplines.

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