Frases de Anthony Giddens

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Anthony Giddens

Data de nascimento: 8. Janeiro 1938

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Anthony Giddens é um sociólogo britânico, renomado por sua Teoria da estruturação . Considerado por muitos como o mais importante filósofo social inglês contemporâneo, figura de proa do novo trabalhismo britânico e teórico pioneiro da Terceira via, tem mais de vinte livros publicados ao longo de duas décadas.

Do ponto de vista acadêmico, o seu interesse centra-se em reformular a teoria social e reexaminar a compreensão do desenvolvimento e da modernidade.

As suas ideias tiveram uma enorme influência quer na teoria quer no ensino da sociologia e da teoria social em todo o mundo. A sua obra abarca diversas temáticas, entre as quais a história do pensamento social, a estrutura de classes, elites e poder, nações e nacionalismos, identidade pessoal e social, a família, relações e sexualidade.

Foi um dos primeiros autores a trabalhar o conceito de globalização.

Mais recentemente tem estado na vanguarda do desenvolvimento de ideias políticas de centro-esquerda, tendo ajudado a popularizar a ideia de Terceira via, com que pretende contribuir para a renovação da social-democracia.

Entre 1997 e 2003, foi diretor da London School of Economics, onde estudara para um mestrado. Anteriormente fora professor de Sociologia em Cambridge, onde conseguira seu doutorado. Muitos livros foram publicados sobre este autor e a sua obra. Foram-lhe concedidos diversos títulos honoríficos.

Foi co-fundador, em 1985, de uma editora de livros científicos, a Polity Press.

Giddens trabalhou como assessor do ex-Primeiro-ministro britânico Tony Blair.

Citações Anthony Giddens

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„It is usually assumed that, in speaking, in the 1844 Manuscripts, of man’s “being reduced to the level of the animals,” and of man’s alienation from his “species-being” under the conditions of capitalist production, Marx is thinking in terms of an abstract conception of “man” as being alienated from his biological characteristics as a species. So, it is presumed, at this initial stage in the evolution of his thought, Marx believed that man is essentially a creative being whose “natural” propensities are denied by the restrictive character of capitalism. Actually, Marx holds, on the contrary, that the enormous productive power of capitalism generates possibilities for the future development of man which could not have been possible under prior forms of productive system. The organization of social relationships within which capitalist production is carried on in fact leads to the failure to realize these historically generated possibilities. The character of alienated labor does not express a tension between “man in nature” (non-alienated) and “man in society” (alienated), but between the potential generated by a specific form of society—capitalism—and the frustrated realization of that potential. What separates man from the animals is not the mere existence of biological differences between mankind and other species, but the cultural achievements of men, which are the outcome of a very long process of social development.“

—  Anthony Giddens
pp. 15-16.

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„This situation [alienation] can therefore [according to Durkheim] be remedied by providing the individual with a moral awareness of the social importance of his particular role in the division of labour. He is then no longer an alienated automaton. but is a useful part of an organic whole: ‘from that time, as special and uniform as his activity may be, it is that of an intelligent being, for it has direction, and he is aware of it.’ This is entirely consistent with Durkheim’s general account of the growth of the division of labour, and its relationship to human freedom. It is only through moral acceptance in his particular role in the division of labour that the individual is able to achieve a high degree of autonomy as a self-conscious being, and can escape both the tyranny of rigid moral conformity demanded in undifferentiated societies on the one hand and the tyranny of unrealisable desires on the other.
Not the moral integration of the individual within a differentiated division of labour but the effective dissolution of the division of labour as an organising principle of human social intercourse, is the premise of Marx’s conception. Marx nowhere specifies in detail how this future society would be organised socially, but, at any rate,. this perspective differs decisively from that of Durkheim. The vision of a highly differentiated division of labour integrated upon the basis of moral norms of individual obligation and corporate solidarity. is quite at variance with Marx’s anticipation of the future form of society.
According to Durkheim’s standpoint. the criteria underlying Marx’s hopes for the elimination of technological alienation represent a reversion to moral principles which are no longer appropriate to the modern form of society. This is exactly the problem which Durkheim poses at the opening of The Division of Labour: ‘Is it our duty to seek to become a thorough and complete human being. one quite sufficient unto himself; or, on the contrary, to be only a part of a whole, the organ of an organism?’ The analysis contained in the work, in Durkheim’s view, demonstrates conclusively that organic solidarity is the ‘normal’ type in modern societies, and consequently that the era of the ‘universal man’ is finished. The latter ideal, which predominated up to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in western Europe is incompatible with the diversity of the contemporary order. In preserving this ideal. by contrast. Marx argues the obverse: that the tendencies which are leading to the destruction of capitalism are themselves capable of effecting a recovery of the ‘universal’ properties of man. which are shared by every individual.“

—  Anthony Giddens
pp. 230-231.

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