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Andrew Johnson

Data de nascimento: 29. Dezembro 1808
Data de falecimento: 31. Julho 1875

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Andrew Johnson foi um político estadunidense. Foi o 17º Presidente dos Estados Unidos de 1865 a 1869. Johnson assumiu a presidência após o assassinato do então presidente Abraham Lincoln, de quem era vice-presidente. Antes fora governador do Tennessee, e senador pelo mesmo estado.

Johnson foi um senador norte-americano de Greeneville, Tennessee, enquanto ocorria a secessão dos estados do sul. Ele foi o único senador do sul que não abandonou seu posto após a guerra e se tornou o mais proeminente "democrata de guerra" do Sul, apoiando as políticas militares do presidente norte-americano Abraham Lincoln durante a Guerra Civil de 1861-1865. Em 1862 Lincoln nomeou Johnson governador do Tennessee, onde ele provou ser enérgico e eficaz na luta contra a rebelião.

Johnson foi nomeado para ser vice-presidente em 1864 pelo Partido de União Nacional. Ele e Lincoln foram eleitos em novembro de 1864 e Johnson tornou-se presidente após o assassinato de Lincoln, sucedendo-lhe em 15 de Abril de 1865.

Como presidente, ele assumiu a responsabilidade da Reconstrução Presidencial - a primeira fase da Reconstrução - que durou até os "Republicanos Radicais" ganharem o controle do Congresso nas eleições de 1866. Sua política conciliatória com o Sul, sua pressa para reinscrever os ex-confederados de volta para a União e os seus vetos dos direitos civis embrenharam-no em uma amarga disputa com os "Republicanos Radicais". Os Radicais, na Câmara dos Representantes, fizeram uma tentativa de impeachment em 1868, enquanto sustentavam a ideia de que ele teria violado a Tenure of Office Act, uma lei promulgada pelo Congresso em março de 1867 durante o veto de Johnson, mas ele foi absolvido por um único voto no Senado. Andrew foi o primeiro presidente dos Estados Unidos a sofrer um impeachment.

Citações Andrew Johnson

„Certamente o governo dos Estados Unidos é um governo limitado, e assim que é cada governo do estado um governo limitado. Com nós esta idéia da limitação se espalha através de todas as formas da administração - geral, estadual, e municipal - e repousa sobre o grande princípio da diferenciação o reconhecimento dos direitos do homem. As antigas repúblicas absorveram o indivíduo no estado - prescreveu sua religião e controlou sua atividade. O sistema americano repousa sobre a afirmação da igualdade de direito de cada homem à vida, a liberdade e à busca da felicidade, a liberdade de consciência, à cultura e ao exercício de todas as suas faculdades. Consequentemente, a administração estadual está limitada - como a das Administrações Públicas no interesse da União, como para o cidadão individual no interesse da liberdade.“

—  Andrew Johnson
Certainly the Government of the United States is a limited government, and so is every State government a limited government. With us this idea of limitation spreads through every form of administration — general, State, and municipal — and rests on the great distinguishing principle of the recognition of the rights of man. The ancient republics absorbed the individual in the state — prescribed his religion and controlled his activity. The American system rests on the assertion of the equal right of every man to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, to freedom of conscience, to the culture and exercise of all his faculties. As a consequence the State government is limited — as to the General Government in the interest of union, as to the individual citizen in the interest of freedom. First State of the Union Address (4 de dezembro de 1865)

„Há quem não confie na integridade e capacidade dos povos para governar-se. Para todos aqueles que entretêm tais receios vou mais respeitosamente dizer que não tenho nenhum receio… Se um homem não é capaz, e não deve ser confiável pelo seu próprio governo, ele será confiável com o governo de outros … Quem, então, irá reger? A resposta deve ser, homens - para nós que não temos anjos sob a forma de homens, até agora, que estejam dispostos a assumir a responsabilidade dos nossos assuntos políticos.“

—  Andrew Johnson
There are some who lack confidence in the integrity and capacity of the people to govern themselves. To all who entertain such fears I will most respectfully say that I entertain none... If a man is not capable, and is not to be trusted with the government of himself, is he to be trusted with the government of others... Who, then, will govern? The answer must be, Man — for we have no angels in the shape of men, as yet, who are willing to take charge of our political affairs. Declaração (1853) como citado em “Andrew Johnson, Plebeian and Pátriot” (1928) por Robert Watson Winston

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„There are some who lack confidence in the integrity and capacity of the people to govern themselves.“

—  Andrew Johnson
Quote, Context: There are some who lack confidence in the integrity and capacity of the people to govern themselves. To all who entertain such fears I will most respectfully say that I entertain none... If a man is not capable, and is not to be trusted with the government of himself, is he to be trusted with the government of others... Who, then, will govern? The answer must be, Man — for we have no angels in the shape of men, as yet, who are willing to take charge of our political affairs. Statement (1853) as quoted in Andrew Johnson, Plebeian and Patriot (1928) by Robert Watson Winston.

„Tyranny and despotism can be exercised by many, more rigorously, more vigorously, and more severely, than by one.“

—  Andrew Johnson
Quote, Context: Your President is now the Tribune of the people, and, thank God, I am, and intend to assert the power which the people have placed in me... Tyranny and despotism can be exercised by many, more rigorously, more vigorously, and more severely, than by one. As quoted in Presidential Government in the United States: The Unwritten Constitution (1947) by Caleb Perry Patterson. <!-- p. 122 -->

„Certainly the Government of the United States is a limited government, and so is every State government a limited government.“

—  Andrew Johnson
Quote, First State of the Union Address (1865), Context: Certainly the Government of the United States is a limited government, and so is every State government a limited government. With us this idea of limitation spreads through every form of administration — general, State, and municipal — and rests on the great distinguishing principle of the recognition of the rights of man. The ancient republics absorbed the individual in the state — prescribed his religion and controlled his activity. The American system rests on the assertion of the equal right of every man to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, to freedom of conscience, to the culture and exercise of all his faculties. As a consequence the State government is limited — as to the General Government in the interest of union, as to the individual citizen in the interest of freedom.

„Our Government springs from and was made for the people — not the people for the Government. To them it owes allegiance; from them it must derive its courage, strength, and wisdom.“

—  Andrew Johnson
Quote, First State of the Union Address (1865), Context: Our Government springs from and was made for the people — not the people for the Government. To them it owes allegiance; from them it must derive its courage, strength, and wisdom. But while the Government is thus bound to defer to the people, from whom it derives its existence, it should, from the very consideration of its origin, be strong in its power of resistance to the establishment of inequalities. Monopolies, perpetuities, and class legislation are contrary to the genius of free government, and ought not to be allowed. Here there is no room for favored classes or monopolies; the principle of our Government is that of equal laws and freedom of industry. Wherever monopoly attains a foothold, it is sure to be a source of danger, discord, and trouble. We shall but fulfill our duties as legislators by according "equal and exact justice to all men," special privileges to none.

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„Mr. Jefferson meant the white race.“

—  Andrew Johnson
Quote, Regarding the statement in the Declaration of Independence that "all men are created equal." "Speech on Harper's Ferry Incident", 12 December 1859; as printed in The papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 3: 1858-1860 (1972), ed. LeRoy P. Graf and Ralph W. Haskins, p. 320.

„It's a damn poor mind that can only think of one way to spell a word.“

—  Andrew Johnson
Misattributed, More commonly misattributed to Andrew Jackson, the originator of this line is actually unknown.

„No, gentlemen, if I am to be shot at, I want no man to be in the way of the bullet.“

—  Andrew Johnson
Quote, As military governor of Tennessee, asserting that he would walk alone, to friends who offered to escort him to the statehouse, after postings of a placard saying he should be "shot on sight." (c.1862); as quoted in Andrew Johnson, President of the United States: His Life and Speeches (1866) by Lillian Foster.

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