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William Morris

Data de nascimento: 24. Março 1834
Data de falecimento: 3. Outubro 1896
Outros nomes:উইলিয়াম মরিস, Вилијам Морис

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William Morris foi um designer têxtil, poeta, romancista, tradutor e ativista socialista inglês. Associado com o movimento artístico britânico Arts & crafts, foi um dos principais contribuidores para o revivalismo das artes têxteis e métodos tradicionais de produção. As suas contribuições literárias ajudaram a estabelecer o género de fantasia moderno, tendo também tido um papel significativo na divulgação do movimento socialista na Grã-Bretanha.

Nascido em Walthamstow, no Essex, no seio de uma família abastada da classe média, Morris foi profundamente influenciado pelo medievalismo durante a formação em estudos clássicos na Universidade de Oxford, onde se juntou ao Birmingham Set. Depois da universidade recebeu formação de arquitetura, casou com Jane Burden e criou laços de amizade com os artistas pré-rafaelitas Edward Burne-Jones e Dante Gabriel Rossetti e com o arquiteto neogótico Philip Webb. Webb e Morris projetaram a Casa Vermelha, onde Morris viveu entre 1859 e 1865, antes de se mudar para Bloomsbury, no centro de Londres. Em 1861, Morris fundou uma empresa de artes decorativas com Burne-Jones, Rossetti e Webb, entre outros, denominada Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. Devido à elevada procura, a empresa influenciou de forma profunda a decoração de interiores durante a era vitoriana, vendendo tapeçarias, papel de parede, tecidos, mobília e vitrais desenhados por Morris. Em 1875, Morris assumiu em exclusivo a direção da empresa, entretanto renomeada para Morris & Co.

Embora continuasse a ser proprietário da casa em Londres, em 1871 Morris aluga um retiro rural em Cotswolds, no Oxfordshire. Profundamente influenciado por visitas à Islândia, traduziu uma série de traduções de sagas islandesas juntamente com Eiríkr Magnússon. Publicou também uma série de poemas e romances épicos da sua autoria, como The Earthly Paradise , A Dream of John Ball , a utopia News from Nowhere e o romance de fantasia The Well at the World's End . Em 1877 fundou a Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings par afazer campanha contra os danos provocados pelos restauros da época. Aderindo ao marxismo e influenciado pelo anarquismo, na década de 1880 Morris torna-se um ativista do socialismo revolucionário. Depois de se ter envolvido na Federação Social Democrata, em 1884 funda a Liga Socialista, da qual se viria a separar em 1890. Em 1891 fundou a editora Kelmscott Press com o intuito de publicar livros inspirados pelas iluminuras, uma causa a que se dedicou até à morte.

Morris é considerado uma das mais importantes personalidades da cultura britânica durante a era Vitoriana. Embora enquanto vivo fosse conhecido sobretudo pela poesia, após a sua morte tornou-se mais conhecido pelo design. Fundada em 1955, a William Morris Society tem como finalidade a divulgação do seu legado. Para além das numerosas biografias, muito do seu trabalho pode ser visto em museus e galerias de arte e grande parte do que desenhou ainda se encontra em produção.

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Citações William Morris

„Love is enough: cherish life that abideth,
Lest ye die ere ye know him, and curse and misname him;
For who knows in what ruin of all hope he hideth,
On what wings of the terror of darkness he rideth?“

—  William Morris
Context: Love is enough: cherish life that abideth, Lest ye die ere ye know him, and curse and misname him; For who knows in what ruin of all hope he hideth, On what wings of the terror of darkness he rideth? And what is the joy of man's life that ye blame him For his bliss grown a sword, and his rest grown a fire?

„I love art, and I love history, but it is living art and living history that I love…“

—  William Morris
Context: I love art, and I love history, but it is living art and living history that I love... It is in the interest of living art and living history that I oppose so-called restoration. What history can there be in a building bedaubed with ornament, which cannot at the best be anything but a hopeless and lifeless imitation of the hope and vigour of the earlier world? "The History of Pattern-Designing" lecture (1882) The Collected Works of William Morris (1910 - 1915) Vol. 22.

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„But the kissed lips of Love and fair life everlasting!
Cry out, for one heedeth, who leadeth you home!“

—  William Morris
Context: Come — pain ye shall have, and be blind to the ending! Come — fear ye shall have, mid the sky's overcasting! Come — change ye shall have, for far are ye wending! Come — no crown ye shall have for your thirst and your fasting, But the kissed lips of Love and fair life everlasting! Cry out, for one heedeth, who leadeth you home!

„Its contempt of simple pleasures which everyone could enjoy but for its folly? Its eyeless vulgarity which has destroyed art, the one certain solace of labour?“

—  William Morris
Context: What shall I say concerning its mastery of and its waste of mechanical power, its commonwealth so poor, its enemies of the commonwealth so rich, its stupendous organization — for the misery of life! Its contempt of simple pleasures which everyone could enjoy but for its folly? Its eyeless vulgarity which has destroyed art, the one certain solace of labour? All this I felt then as now, but I did not know why it was so. The hope of the past times was gone, the struggles of mankind for many ages had produced nothing but this sordid, aimless, ugly confusion. Why I Am A Socialist (1884).

„Ye know not how void is your hope and your living:
Depart with your helping lest yet ye undo me!“

—  William Morris
Context: Ye know not how void is your hope and your living: Depart with your helping lest yet ye undo me! Ye know not that at nightfall she draweth near to me, There is soft speech between us and words of forgiving Till in dead of the midnight her kisses thrill through me. — Pass by me and harken, and waken me not!

„All this I have seen in the dreams of the night clearer than I can force myself to see them in dreams of the day. So that it would have been nothing new to me the other night to fall into an architectural dream if that were all, and yet I have to tell of things strange and new that befell me after I had fallen asleep.“

—  William Morris
Context: When I was journeying (in a dream of the night) down the well-remembered reaches of the Thames betwixt Streatley and Wallingford, where the foothills of the White Horse fall back from the broad stream, I came upon a clear-seen mediæval town standing up with roof and tower and spire within its walls, grey and ancient, but untouched from the days of its builders of old. All this I have seen in the dreams of the night clearer than I can force myself to see them in dreams of the day. So that it would have been nothing new to me the other night to fall into an architectural dream if that were all, and yet I have to tell of things strange and new that befell me after I had fallen asleep. Ch. 1: The Men of Kent

„Your hearts make all plain in the best wise they would
And the world ye thought waning is glorious and good…“

—  William Morris
Context: Till again shall the change come, and words your lips say not Your hearts make all plain in the best wise they would And the world ye thought waning is glorious and good...

„The hope of the past times was gone, the struggles of mankind for many ages had produced nothing but this sordid, aimless, ugly confusion.“

—  William Morris
Context: What shall I say concerning its mastery of and its waste of mechanical power, its commonwealth so poor, its enemies of the commonwealth so rich, its stupendous organization — for the misery of life! Its contempt of simple pleasures which everyone could enjoy but for its folly? Its eyeless vulgarity which has destroyed art, the one certain solace of labour? All this I felt then as now, but I did not know why it was so. The hope of the past times was gone, the struggles of mankind for many ages had produced nothing but this sordid, aimless, ugly confusion. Why I Am A Socialist (1884).

„Perchance some marvel I shall see“

—  William Morris
Context: And there he saw a door within the wall, Well-hinged, close shut; nor was there in that place Another on its hinges, therefore he Stood there and pondered for a little space And thought: "Perchance some marvel I shall see, For surely here some dweller there must be, Because this door seems whole and new and sound, While nought but ruin I can see around".

„Love is enough: while ye deemed him a-sleeping,
There were signs of his coming and sounds of his feet“

—  William Morris
Context: Love is enough: while ye deemed him a-sleeping, There were signs of his coming and sounds of his feet; His touch it was that would bring you to weeping, When the summer was deepest and music most sweet...

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„Fear and Hope — those are the names of the two great passions which rule the race of man, and with which revolutionists have to deal; to give hope to the many oppressed and fear to the few oppressors, that is our business“

—  William Morris
Context: Fear and Hope — those are the names of the two great passions which rule the race of man, and with which revolutionists have to deal; to give hope to the many oppressed and fear to the few oppressors, that is our business; if we do the first and give hope to the many, the few must be frightened by their hope; otherwise we do not want to frighten them; it is not revenge we want for poor people, but happiness; indeed, what revenge can be taken for all the thousands of years of the sufferings of the poor?

„Morn shall meet noon
While the flower-stems yet move,
Though the wind dieth soon
And the clouds fade above.“

—  William Morris
Context: Morn shall meet noon While the flower-stems yet move, Though the wind dieth soon And the clouds fade above. Loved lips are thine As I tremble and hearken; Bright thine eyes shine, Though the leaves thy brow darken. O Love, kiss me into silence, lest no word avail me, Stay my head with thy bosom lest breath and life fail me! O sweet day, O rich day, made long for our love!

„A sorry merchant am I on this day,
E'en as thou willest so must I obey.“

—  William Morris
Context: From those thy words, I deem from some distress By deeds of mine thy dear life I might save; O then, delay not! if one ever gave His life to any, mine I give to thee; Come, tell me what the price of love must be? Swift death, to be with thee a day and night And with the earliest dawning to be slain? Or better, a long year of great delight, And many years of misery and pain? Or worse, and this poor hour for all my gain? A sorry merchant am I on this day, E'en as thou willest so must I obey.

„To thee, when thou didst try to conceive of them, the ways of the days to come seemed follies scarce to be thought of; yet shall they come to be familiar things“

—  William Morris
Context: To thee, when thou didst try to conceive of them, the ways of the days to come seemed follies scarce to be thought of; yet shall they come to be familiar things, and an order by which every man liveth, ill as he liveth, so that men shall deem of them, that thus it hath been since the beginning of the world, and that thus it shall be while the world endureth... Yet in time shall this also grow old, and doubt shall creep in, because men shall scarce be able to live by that order, and the complaint of the poor shall be hearkened, no longer as a tale not utterly grievous, but as a threat of ruin, and a fear. Then shall these things, which to thee seem follies, and to the men between thee and me mere wisdom and the bond of stability, seem follies once again; yet, whereas men have so long lived by them, they shall cling to them yet from blindness and from fear; and those that see, and that have thus much conquered fear that they are furthering the real time that cometh and not the dream that faileth, these men shall the blind and the fearful mock and missay, and torment and murder: and great and grievous shall be the strife in those days, and many the failures of the wise, and too oft sore shall be the despair of the valiant; and back-sliding, and doubt, and contest between friends and fellows lacking time in the hubbub to understand each other, shall grieve many hearts and hinder the Host of the Fellowship: yet shall all bring about the end, till thy deeming of folly and ours shall be one, and thy hope and our hope; and then — the Day will have come. Ch. 12: Ill Would Change Be At Whiles Were It Not For The Change Beyond The Change.

„Dawn talks to Day
Over dew-gleaming flowers“

—  William Morris
Context: Dawn talks to Day Over dew-gleaming flowers, Night flies away Till the resting of hours: Fresh are thy feet And with dreams thine eyes glistening, Thy still lips are sweet Though the world is a-listening. O Love, set a word in my mouth for our meeting, Cast thine arms round about me to stay my heart's beating! O fresh day, O fair day, O long day made ours!

„Beware, beware! for I have many a spell;
If greed of power and gold have led thee on,
Not lightly shall this untold wealth be won.“

—  William Morris
Context: What man art thou that thus hast wandered here, And found this lonely chamber where I dwell? Beware, beware! for I have many a spell; If greed of power and gold have led thee on, Not lightly shall this untold wealth be won. But if thou com'st here knowing of my tale, In hope to bear away my body fair, Stout must thine heart be, nor shall that avail If thou a wicked soul in thee dost bear; So once again I bid thee to beware, Because no base man things like this may see, And live thereafter long and happily.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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