Frases de W. H. Auden

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W. H. Auden

Data de nascimento: 21. Fevereiro 1907
Data de falecimento: 29. Setembro 1973
Outros nomes:W.H. Auden

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Wystan Hugh Auden que escrevia como W. H. Auden, foi um poeta anglo-americano, tido como um dos grandes autores do século XX.

Auden cresceu em e perto de Birmingham, em uma família de classe média de profissionais que liam literatura inglesa na Christ Church, em Oxford. Seus primeiros poemas, escritos no final de 1920 e início da década de 1930, alternados entre estilos modernos de telegráficos e fluentes tradicionais, foram escritas em um tom intenso e dramático, e estabeleceu sua reputação como um poeta político de esquerda e profeta. Ele tornou-se desconfortável nesse papel posteriormente em 1930, e abandonou-a depois que ele se mudou para os Estados Unidos em 1939, onde se tornou um cidadão americano em 1946. Seus poemas em 1940 exploraram temas religiosos e éticos de uma forma menos dramática do que seus trabalhos anteriores, mas ainda combinando formas tradicionais e estilos com novas formas concebidas por Auden para si mesmo. Na década de 1950 e 1960, muitos de seus poemas foram voltados para as formas em que palavras reveladas escondiam as emoções, e ele tomou um interesse particular por escritos libretos de ópera, uma forma ideal para a expressão direta de sentimentos fortes.

Para os jovens intelectuais de esquerda ele foi a grande voz da década de 1930, "denunciando os males da sociedade capitalista, mas também alertando para a ascensão do totalitarismo": algumas vezes demasiadamente político, sempre implicitamente radical e incômodo, pela frequência com que lançava mão, em seus poemas, de espiões, bordéis e impulsos reprimidos - sua homossexualidade estava por trás de várias referências pessoais, aparecendo insistentemente em sua poesia. Assim que T. S. Eliot publicou a primeira coletânea de Auden, Poemas , ele foi imediatamente reconhecido como porta-voz de sua geração. Filho de médico, Auden foi educado na Escola Gresham e na Christ Church, em Oxford, onde se tornou o líder de uma "gangue" formada por Stephen Spender, Louis MacNeice e Cecil Day-Lewis . Logo começou a colaborar com um amigo da escola preparatória, Christopher Isherwood, em peças esquerdistas que misturavam farsa e poesia. Em 1939, mudou-se com Isherwood para a América, onde conheceu aquele que se tornaria seu companheiro, Chester Kallman, com quem anos mais tarde escreveu libretos de ópera, incluindo The Rake's Progress, para Stravinsky.

Seu poema Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone foi utilizado no filme Quatro casamentos e um funeral , de Mike Newell ,

Citações W. H. Auden

Publicidade

„I do not believe an artist's life throws much light upon his works. I do believe, however, that, more often than most people realize, his works may throw light upon his life.“

— W. H. Auden
Context: I said earlier that I do not believe an artist's life throws much light upon his works. I do believe, however, that, more often than most people realize, his works may throw light upon his life. An artist with certain imaginative ideas in his head may then involve himself in relationships which are congenial to them. "The Greatest of the Monsters", p. 247

„He suffers from one great literary defect, which is often found in lonely geniuses: he never knows when to stop.“

— W. H. Auden
Context: He suffers from one great literary defect, which is often found in lonely geniuses: he never knows when to stop. Lonely people are apt to fall in love with the sound of their own voice, as Narcissus fell in love with his reflection, not out of conceit but out of despair of finding another who will listen and respond. On Søren Kierkegaard, in "A Knight of Doleful Countenance", p. 192

Publicidade

„The mystics themselves do not seem to have believed their physical and mental sufferings to be a sign of grace, but it is unfortunate that it is precisely physical manifestations which appeal most to the religiosity of the mob.“

— W. H. Auden
Context: The mystics themselves do not seem to have believed their physical and mental sufferings to be a sign of grace, but it is unfortunate that it is precisely physical manifestations which appeal most to the religiosity of the mob. A woman might spend twenty years nursing lepers without having any notice taken of her, but let her once exhibit the stigmata or live for long periods on nothing but the Host and water, and in no time the crowd will be clamoring for her beatification. "The Protestant Mystics", p. 72

„A craftsman knows in advance what the finished result will be, while the artist knows only what it will be when he has finished it.“

— W. H. Auden
Context: A craftsman knows in advance what the finished result will be, while the artist knows only what it will be when he has finished it. But it is unbecoming in an artist to talk about inspiration; that is the reader's business. "A Poet of the Actual", p. 265

„Machines have no political opinions, but they have profound political effects. They demand a strict regimentation of time, and, by abolishing the need for manual skill, have transformed the majority of the population from workers into laborers.“

— W. H. Auden
Context: Machines have no political opinions, but they have profound political effects. They demand a strict regimentation of time, and, by abolishing the need for manual skill, have transformed the majority of the population from workers into laborers. There are, that is to say, fewer and fewer jobs which a man can find a pride and satisfaction in doing well, more and more which have no interest in themselves and can be valued only for the money they provide. "A Russian Aesthete", p. 279

„What the mass media offers is not popular art, but entertainment which is intended to be consumed like food, forgotten, and replaced by a new dish.“

— W. H. Auden
Context: What the mass media offers is not popular art, but entertainment which is intended to be consumed like food, forgotten, and replaced by a new dish. This is bad for everyone; the majority lose all genuine taste of their own, and the minority become cultural snobs. "The Poet & The City", p. 83

Publicidade

„The idea of a sacrificial victim is not new; but that it should be the victim who chooses to be sacrificed, and the sacrificers who deny that any sacrifice has been made, is very new.“

— W. H. Auden
Context: Man … always acts either self-loving, just for the hell of it, or God-loving, just for the heaven of it; his reasons, his appetites are secondary motivations. Man chooses either life or death, but he chooses; everything he does, from going to the toilet to mathematical speculation, is an act of religious worship, either of God or of himself. Lastly by the classical apotheosis of Man-God, Augustine opposes the Christian belief in Jesus Christ, the God-Man. The former is a Hercules who compels recognition by the great deeds he does in establishing for the common people in the law, order and prosperity they cannot establish for themselves, by his manifestation of superior power; the latter reveals to fallen man that God is love by suffering, i. e. by refusing to compel recognition, choosing instead to be a victim of man's self-love. The idea of a sacrificial victim is not new; but that it should be the victim who chooses to be sacrificed, and the sacrificers who deny that any sacrifice has been made, is very new. Assessing St. Augustine's perspectives in "Augustus to Augustine", p. 37

„Money is the necessity that frees us from necessity.“

— W. H. Auden
Context: Money is the necessity that frees us from necessity. Of all novelists in any country, Trollope best understands the role of money. Compared with him even Balzac is a romantic. "A Poet of the Actual", p. 266

„In most poetic expressions of patriotism, it is impossible to distinguish what is one of the greatest human virtues from the worst human vice, collective egotism.“

— W. H. Auden
Context: In most poetic expressions of patriotism, it is impossible to distinguish what is one of the greatest human virtues from the worst human vice, collective egotism. The virtue of patriotism has been extolled most loudly and publicly by nations that are in the process of conquering others, by the Roman, for example, in the first century B. C., the French in the 1790s, the English in the nineteenth century, and the Germans in the first half of the twentieth. To such people, love of one's country involves denying the right of others, of the Gauls, the Italians, the Indians, the Poles, to love theirs. "C.P. Cavafy", p. 341

„Man … always acts either self-loving, just for the hell of it, or God-loving, just for the heaven of it; his reasons, his appetites are secondary motivations.“

— W. H. Auden
Context: Man … always acts either self-loving, just for the hell of it, or God-loving, just for the heaven of it; his reasons, his appetites are secondary motivations. Man chooses either life or death, but he chooses; everything he does, from going to the toilet to mathematical speculation, is an act of religious worship, either of God or of himself. Lastly by the classical apotheosis of Man-God, Augustine opposes the Christian belief in Jesus Christ, the God-Man. The former is a Hercules who compels recognition by the great deeds he does in establishing for the common people in the law, order and prosperity they cannot establish for themselves, by his manifestation of superior power; the latter reveals to fallen man that God is love by suffering, i. e. by refusing to compel recognition, choosing instead to be a victim of man's self-love. The idea of a sacrificial victim is not new; but that it should be the victim who chooses to be sacrificed, and the sacrificers who deny that any sacrifice has been made, is very new. Assessing St. Augustine's perspectives in "Augustus to Augustine", p. 37

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