Frases de Vitrúvio

 Vitrúvio photo
1  0

Vitrúvio

Data de nascimento: 80 a.C.
Data de falecimento: 15 a.C.

Publicidade

Marcos Vitrúvio Polião foi um arquiteto romano que viveu no século I a.C. e deixou como legado a obra "De Architectura" , único tratado europeu do período greco-romano que chegou aos nossos dias e serviu de fonte de inspiração a diversos textos sobre Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Hidráulica, Engenharia, desde o Renascimento.

Os seus padrões de proporções e os seus princípios conceituais - "utilitas" , "venustas" e "firmitas" -, inauguraram a base da Arquitetura clássica.

Citações Vitrúvio

„Oak... lasts for an unlimited period when buried in underground structures“

—  Vitruvius
Context: Oak... lasts for an unlimited period when buried in underground structures.... when exposed to moisture... it cannot take in liquid on account of its compactness, but, withdrawing from the moisture, it resists it and warps, thus making cracks. Chapter IX, Sec. 8

Publicidade

„As for Mars, when that divinity is enshrined outside the walls, the citizens will never take up arms against each other, and he will defend the city from its enemies and save it from danger in war.“

—  Vitruvius
Context: For the temples, the sites for those of the gods under whose particular protection the state is thought to rest and for Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, should be on the very highest point commanding a view of the greater part of the city. Mercury should be in the forum, or, like Isis and Serapis, in the emporium; Apollo and Father Bacchus near the theater; Hercules at the circus in communities which have no gymnasia nor amphitheatres; Mars outside the city but at the training ground, and so Venus, but at the harbor. It is moreover shown by the Etruscan diviners in treatises on their science that the fanes of Venus, Vulcan, and Mars should be situated outside the walls, in order that the young men and married women may not become habituated in the city to the temptations incident to the worship of Venus, and that buildings may be free from the terror of fires through the religious rites and sacrifices which call the power of Vulcan beyond the walls. As for Mars, when that divinity is enshrined outside the walls, the citizens will never take up arms against each other, and he will defend the city from its enemies and save it from danger in war. Chapter VII, Sec. 1

„All... must be built with due reference to durability, convenience, and beauty. Durability will be assured when foundations are carried down to the solid ground and materials wisely and liberally selected; convenience, when the arrangement of the apartments is faultless and presents no hindrance to use, and“

—  Vitruvius
Context: All... must be built with due reference to durability, convenience, and beauty. Durability will be assured when foundations are carried down to the solid ground and materials wisely and liberally selected; convenience, when the arrangement of the apartments is faultless and presents no hindrance to use, and when each class of building is assigned to its suitable and appropriate exposure; and beauty, when the appearance of the work is pleasing and in good taste, and when its members are in due proportion according to correct principles of symmetry. Chapter III, Sec. 2

„Arrangement includes the putting of things in their proper places and the elegance of effect which is due to adjustments appropriate to the character of the work. Its forms of expression are these: ground plan, elevation, and perspective. ...All three come of reflexion and invention.“

—  Vitruvius
Context: Arrangement includes the putting of things in their proper places and the elegance of effect which is due to adjustments appropriate to the character of the work. Its forms of expression are these: ground plan, elevation, and perspective.... All three come of reflexion and invention. Chapter II, Sec. 2

„Some have held that there are only four winds“

—  Vitruvius
Context: Some have held that there are only four winds: Solanus from the east; Auster from the south; Favonius from due west; Septentrio from the north. But more careful investigators tell us that there are eight. Chapter VI, Sec. 4

„This is also the case with women“

—  Vitruvius
Context: In Spring all trees become pregnant, and they are all employing their natural vigor in the production of leaves and of the fruits that return every year. The requirements of that season render them empty and swollen, and so they are weak and feeble because of their looseness of texture. This is also the case with women who have conceived. Their bodies are not considered perfectly healthy until the child is born. Chapter IX "Timber" Sec. 1

„There are also several quarries called Anician in the territory of Tarquinii, the stone being of the color of peperino. ...Neither the season of frost nor exposure to fire can harm it“

—  Vitruvius
Context: There are also several quarries called Anician in the territory of Tarquinii, the stone being of the color of peperino.... Neither the season of frost nor exposure to fire can harm it, but it remains solid and lasts to a great age, because there is only a little air and fire in its natural composition, a moderate amount of moisture, and a great deal of the earthy. Hence its structure is of close texture and solid, and so it cannot be injured by the weather or by the force of fire. Monuments in the neighborhood of the town of Ferento which are made of stone from these quarries... gracefully carved. Old as these are, they look as fresh as if they were only just finished. Bronze workers, also, make molds for the casting of bronze out of stone from these quarries and find it very useful in bronze-founding. Chapter VII, Sec. 3-4

Publicidade

„They should rather be made of white and chalky or of red clay, or even of a coarse grained gravelly clay.“

—  Vitruvius
Context: Bricks... should not be made of sandy or pebbly clay, or of fine gravel, because when made of these kinds they are in the first place heavy; and secondly when washed by the rain as they stand in walls, they go to pieces and break up, and the straw in them does not hold together on account of the roughness of the material. They should rather be made of white and chalky or of red clay, or even of a coarse grained gravelly clay. These materials are smooth and therefore durable; they are not heavy to work with, and are readily laid. Chapter III "Brick" Sec. 1

„In Spring all trees become pregnant“

—  Vitruvius
Context: In Spring all trees become pregnant, and they are all employing their natural vigor in the production of leaves and of the fruits that return every year. The requirements of that season render them empty and swollen, and so they are weak and feeble because of their looseness of texture. This is also the case with women who have conceived. Their bodies are not considered perfectly healthy until the child is born. Chapter IX "Timber" Sec. 1

„The larch... is not only preserved from decay and the worm by the great bitterness of its sap, but also it cannot be kindled with fire“

—  Vitruvius
Context: The larch... is not only preserved from decay and the worm by the great bitterness of its sap, but also it cannot be kindled with fire nor ignite of itself, unless like stone in a limekiln it is burned with other wood.... This is because there is a very small proportion of the elements of fire and air in its composition, which is a dense and solid mass of moisture and the earthy, so that it has no open pores through which fire can find its way... Further, its weight will not let it float in water. Chapter IX, Sec. 14

„In theatres... there are the bronze vessels in which are placed in niches under the seats“

—  Vitruvius
Context: In theatres... there are the bronze vessels in which are placed in niches under the seats in accordance with the musical intervals on mathematical principles. These vessels are arranged with a view to musical concords or harmony, and apportioned in the compass of the fourth, the fifth, and the octave, and so on up to the double octave, in such a way that when the voice of an actor falls in unison with any of them its power is increased, and it reaches the ears of the audience with greater clearness and sweetness. Water organs too, and the other instruments which resemble them cannot be made by one who is without the principles of music. Chapter I, Sec. 9

Publicidade

„Hence buildings made of these kinds of wood last for an unending period of time.“

—  Vitruvius
Context: The hornbeam... is not a wood that breaks easily and is very convenient to handle. Hence the Greeks call it "zygia," because they make of it yokes for their draught animals... Cypress and pine are also just as admirable; for although they... are apt to warp when used in buildings... they can be kept to a great age without rotting because the liquid contained within their substances has a bitter taste which by its pungency prevents the entrance of decay or of those little creatures which are destructive. Hence buildings made of these kinds of wood last for an unending period of time. Chapter IX, Sec. 12

„In walls of masonry the first question must be with regard to the sand, in order that it may be fit to mix into mortar and have no dirt in it.“

—  Vitruvius
Context: In walls of masonry the first question must be with regard to the sand, in order that it may be fit to mix into mortar and have no dirt in it. The kinds of pitsand are these: black, gray, red, and carbuncular. Of these the best will be found to be that which crackles when rubbed in the hand, while that which has much dirt in it will not be sharp enough. Again: throw some sand upon a white garment and then shake it out; if the garment is not soiled and no dirt adheres to it, the sand is suitable. Chapter IV "Sand" Sec. 1

„They never began to build defensive works in a place until after they had made many such trials and satisfied themselves that good water and food had made the liver sound and firm. ...healthfulness being their chief object.“

—  Vitruvius
Context: Our ancestors, when about to build a town or an army post, sacrificed some of the cattle that were wont to feed on the site proposed and examined their livers. If the livers of the first victims were dark-coloured or abnormal, they sacrificed others, to see whether the fault was due to disease or their food. They never began to build defensive works in a place until after they had made many such trials and satisfied themselves that good water and food had made the liver sound and firm.... healthfulness being their chief object. Chapter IV, Sec. 9

„With regard to lime we must be careful that it is burned from a stone which“

—  Vitruvius
Context: With regard to lime we must be careful that it is burned from a stone which, whether soft or hard, is in any case white. Lime made of close-grained stone of the harder sort will be good in structural parts; lime of porous stone, in stucco. After slaking it, mix your mortar, if using pitsand, in the proportions of three parts of sand to one of lime; if using river or sea-sand, mix two parts of sand with one of lime. These will be the right proportions for the composition of the mixture. Further, in using river or sea-sand, the addition of a third part composed of burnt brick, pounded up and sifted, will make your mortar of a better composition to use. Chapter V "Lime" Sec. 1

Próximo
Aniversários de hoje
Oliver Cromwell photo
Oliver Cromwell2
1599 - 1658
Valerie Solanas36
1936 - 1988
Torquato Tasso photo
Torquato Tasso8
1544 - 1595
Outros 49 aniversários hoje
Autores parecidos