Frases de Robert Nozick

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Robert Nozick

Data de nascimento: 16. Novembro 1938
Data de falecimento: 23. Janeiro 2002

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Robert Nozick foi um proeminente filósofo norte-americano e professor da Universidade Harvard. Ele elaborou uma análise inovadora em matéria de filosofia política, recebendo por isso o National Book Award, dentre inúmeros prêmios. Nozick contestou as teses políticas sociais liberais, socialistas e conservadoras, e expôs uma nova teoria sobre justiça distributiva, um modelo utópico de Estado que se presta à experimentação sob o novo conceito de Estado mínimo, assim como uma proposta de integração entre ética, filosofia e economia.

Nozick questionou os atos e a legitimidade do Estado moderno, que utiliza seu aparato coercitivo-jurídico para forçar o indivíduo e violar seus direitos. Não poupou críticas ao governo liberal nem ao socialista ou ao conservador, que disse desrespeitarem o contrato social de que são parte em detrimento das liberdades inerentes ao homem.

Ele desenvolveu ainda outros trabalhos, menos influentes, nas áreas de epistemologia e teoria da decisão. A sua obra Anarquia, Estado e Utopia, de 1974, foi uma resposta libertária à Uma Teoria da Justiça de John Rawls, publicada em 1971.

Citações Robert Nozick

„Our principles fix what our life stands for, our aims create the light our life is bathed in, and our rationality, both individual and coordinate, defines and symbolizes the distance we have come from mere animality.“

— Robert Nozick
Context: Our principles fix what our life stands for, our aims create the light our life is bathed in, and our rationality, both individual and coordinate, defines and symbolizes the distance we have come from mere animality. It is by these means that our lives come to more than what they instrumentally yield. And by meaning more, our lives yield more. The Nature of Rationality (1993), Ch. V : Instrumental Rationality and Its Limits; Rationality's Imagination, p. 181

„What persons may and may not do to one another limits what they may do through the apparatus of a state, or do to establish such an apparatus.“

— Robert Nozick
Context: Some anarchists have claimed not merely that we would be better off without a state, but that any state necessarily violates people's moral rights and hence is intrinsically immoral. Our starting point then, though nonpolitical, is by intention far from nonmoral. Moral philosophy sets the background for, and boundaries of, political philosophy. What persons may and may not do to one another limits what they may do through the apparatus of a state, or do to establish such an apparatus. Ch. 1 : Why State of Nature Theory?; Political Philosophy, p. 6

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„Justice in holdings is historical; it depends upon what actually has happened.“

— Robert Nozick
Context: Justice in holdings is historical; it depends upon what actually has happened. We shall return to this point later. Ch. 7 : Distributive Justice, Section I, The Entitlement Theory, p. 152

„Individuals have rights and there are things no person or group may do to them (without violating their rights).“

— Robert Nozick
Context: Individuals have rights and there are things no person or group may do to them (without violating their rights). So strong and far-reaching are these rights that they raise the question of what, if anything, the state and its officials may do. How much room do individual rights leave for the state? Preface, p. ix

„Our starting point then, though nonpolitical, is by intention far from nonmoral.“

— Robert Nozick
Context: Some anarchists have claimed not merely that we would be better off without a state, but that any state necessarily violates people's moral rights and hence is intrinsically immoral. Our starting point then, though nonpolitical, is by intention far from nonmoral. Moral philosophy sets the background for, and boundaries of, political philosophy. What persons may and may not do to one another limits what they may do through the apparatus of a state, or do to establish such an apparatus. Ch. 1 : Why State of Nature Theory?; Political Philosophy, p. 6

„No one is entitled to a holding except by (repeated) applications of 1 and 2.“

— Robert Nozick
Context: 1. A person who acquires a holding in accordance with the principle of justice in acquisition is entitled to that holding. 2. A person who acquires a holding in accordance with the principle of justice in transfer, from someone else entitled to the holding, is entitled to the holding. 3. No one is entitled to a holding except by (repeated) applications of 1 and 2. Ch. 7 : Distributive Justice, Section I, The Entitlement Theory, p. 151

„None of these are permissible modes of transition from one situation to another.“

— Robert Nozick
Context: Some people steal from others, or defraud them, or enslave them, seizing their product and preventing them from living as they choose, or forcibly exclude others from competing in exchanges. None of these are permissible modes of transition from one situation to another. Ch. 7 : Distributive Justice, Section I, The Entitlement Theory, p. 152

„A person who acquires a holding in accordance with the principle of justice in acquisition is entitled to that holding.“

— Robert Nozick
Context: 1. A person who acquires a holding in accordance with the principle of justice in acquisition is entitled to that holding. 2. A person who acquires a holding in accordance with the principle of justice in transfer, from someone else entitled to the holding, is entitled to the holding. 3. No one is entitled to a holding except by (repeated) applications of 1 and 2. Ch. 7 : Distributive Justice, Section I, The Entitlement Theory, p. 151

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„Since I do not assume that there are such principles, I do not presume that the political realm will whither away.“

— Robert Nozick
Context: One persistent strand in utopian thinking, as we have often mentioned, is the feeling that there is some set of principles obvious enough to be accepted by all men of good will, precise enough to give unambiguous guidance in particular situations, clear enough so that all will realize its dictates, and complete enough to cover all problems which actually arise. Since I do not assume that there are such principles, I do not presume that the political realm will whither away. The messiness of the details of a political apparatus and the details of how it is to be controlled and limited do not fit easily into one's hopes for a sleek, simple utopian scheme. Ch. 10 : A Framework for Utopia; Utopian Means and Ends, p. 330

„How dare any state or group of individuals do more. Or less.“

— Robert Nozick
Context: Is not the minimal state, the framework for utopia, an inspiring vision? The minimal state treats us as inviolate individuals, who may not be used in certain ways by others as means or tools or instruments or resources; it treats us as persons having individual right with the dignity this constitutes. Treating us with respect by respecting our rights, it allows us, individually or with whom we please, to choose our life and to realize our ends and our conception of ourselves, insofar as we can, aided by the voluntary cooperation of other individuals possessing the same dignity. How dare any state or group of individuals do more. Or less. Ch. 10 : A Framework for Utopia; Utopia and the Minimal State, p. 333

„Is there really one kind of life which is best for each of these people?“

— Robert Nozick
Context: Wittgenstein, Elizabeth Taylor, Bertrand Russell, Thomas Merton, Yogi Berra, Allen Ginsberg, Harry Wolfson, Thoreau, Casey Stengel, The Lubavitcher Rebbe, Picasso, Moses, Einstein, Hugh Hefner, Socrates, Henry Ford, Lenny Bruce, Baba Ram Dass, Gandhi, Sir Edmund Hillary, Raymond Lubitz, Buddha, Frank Sinatra, Columbus, Freud, Norman Mailer, Ayn Rand, Baron Rothschild, Ted Williams, Thomas Edison, H. L. Mencken, Thomas Jefferson, Ralph Ellison, Bobby Fischer, Emma Goldman, Peter Kropotkin, you, and your parents. Is there really one kind of life which is best for each of these people? Ch. 10 : A Framework for Utopia; The Framework, p. 310

„Each community must win and hold the voluntary adherence of its members. No pattern is imposed on everyone, and the result will be one pattern if and only if everyone voluntarily chooses to live in accordance with that pattern of community.“

— Robert Nozick
Context: Some communities will be abandoned, others will struggle along, others will split, others will flourish, gain members, and be duplicated elsewhere. Each community must win and hold the voluntary adherence of its members. No pattern is imposed on everyone, and the result will be one pattern if and only if everyone voluntarily chooses to live in accordance with that pattern of community. Ch. 10 : A Framework for Utopia; Design Devices and Filter Devices, p. 316

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„As more and more people see how it works more and more will wish to participate in or support it. And so it will grow, without being necessary to force everyone or a majority or anyone into the pattern.“

— Robert Nozick
Context: In a free system any large, popular, revolutionary movement should be able to bring about its ends by such a voluntary process. As more and more people see how it works more and more will wish to participate in or support it. And so it will grow, without being necessary to force everyone or a majority or anyone into the pattern. Ch. 10 : A Framework for Utopia; Utopian Means and Ends, p. 327

„Is not the minimal state, the framework for utopia, an inspiring vision?“

— Robert Nozick
Context: Is not the minimal state, the framework for utopia, an inspiring vision? The minimal state treats us as inviolate individuals, who may not be used in certain ways by others as means or tools or instruments or resources; it treats us as persons having individual right with the dignity this constitutes. Treating us with respect by respecting our rights, it allows us, individually or with whom we please, to choose our life and to realize our ends and our conception of ourselves, insofar as we can, aided by the voluntary cooperation of other individuals possessing the same dignity. How dare any state or group of individuals do more. Or less. Ch. 10 : A Framework for Utopia; Utopia and the Minimal State, p. 333

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