Frases de Oliver Cromwell

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Oliver Cromwell

Data de nascimento: 25. Abril 1599
Data de falecimento: 3. Setembro 1658

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Oliver Cromwell , foi um militar e líder político inglês e, mais tarde, Lord Protector do Protectorado. Nascido no seio da nobreza rural, os primeiros quarenta anos da sua vida são pouco conhecidos.Após passar por uma conversão religiosa na década de 1630, Cromwell tornou-se um puritano independente, assumindo uma posição, no geral, tolerante, face aos protestantes do seu tempo. Um homem intensamente religioso - auto-denominado de Moisés puritano — ele acreditava profundamente que Deus era o seu guia nas suas vitórias.

Cromwell foi eleito membro do parlamento pelo círculo eleitoral de Huntingdon em 1628, e por Cambridge, no Pequeno e Longo Parlamentos . Participou na Guerra civil inglesa, ao lado dos "Cabeças Redondas" ou Parlamentaristas. Chamado de "Old Ironsides", foi rapidamente promovido da liderança de uma simples tropa de cavalaria para um dos comandantes principais do New Model Army, onde desempenhou um papel de destaque na derrota das forças realistas. Foi um dos signatários da sentença de morte do rei Carlos I em 1649, e, como membro do Rump Parliament , dominou a Comunidade da Inglaterra. Foi escolhido para assumir o comando da campanha inglesa na Irlanda durante 1649–50. As suas forças derrotaram a coligação entre os Confederados e os Realistas, e ocuparam o país – terminando, assim, com as Guerras confederadas irlandesas. Durante este período, foram redigidas uma série de Leis Penais contra os católicos romanos , e grande parte das suas terras foram confiscadas. Cromwell também liderou uma campanha contra o exército escocês entre 1650 e 1651.

A 20 de abril de 1653, dissolveu o Rump Parliament pela força, instituindo uma assembleia, de curta duração, conhecida como Parlamento Barebones, antes de ser convidado pelos seus pares para liderar como 'Lorde Protetor' da Inglaterra, País de Gales, Escócia e Irlanda, a partir de 16 de dezembro de 1653. Como governante, esteve à frente de uma política exterior muito agressiva e eficaz. Depois da sua morte em 1658, foi sepultado na Abadia de Westminster mas, após a tomada do poder pelos monarquistas, em 1660, o seu corpo foi retirado da sepultura, pendurado por correntes e decapitado.

Citações Oliver Cromwell

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„It's a blessed thing to die daily.“

— Oliver Cromwell
Context: It's a blessed thing to die daily. For what is there in this world to be accounted of! The best men according to the flesh, and things, are lighter than vanity. I find this only good, to love the Lord and his poor despised people, to do for them and to be ready to suffer with them.... and he that is found worthy of this hath obtained great favour from the Lord; and he that is established in this shall ( being conformed to Christ and the rest of the Body) participate in the glory of a resurrection which will answer all. Letter to Sir Thomas Fairfax (7 March 1646)

„No one rises so high as he who knows not whither he is going.“

— Oliver Cromwell
Statement to Pomponne de Bellievre, as told to Cardinal de Retz in 1651; Memoirs of Cardinal de Retz (1717) http://www.gutenberg.org/files/3846/3846.txt Variant: One never rises so high as when one does not know where one is going.

„That which brought me into the capacity I now stand in, was the Petition and Advice given me by you, who, in reference to the ancient Constitution, did draw me here to accept the place of Protector. There is not a man living can say I sought it, no not a man, nor woman, treading upon English ground.“

— Oliver Cromwell
Context: That which brought me into the capacity I now stand in, was the Petition and Advice given me by you, who, in reference to the ancient Constitution, did draw me here to accept the place of Protector. There is not a man living can say I sought it, no not a man, nor woman, treading upon English ground. Speech to Parliament http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=36881 (4 February 1658), quoted in The Diary of Thomas Burton, esq., volume 2: April 1657 - February 1658 (1828), p. 465-466

„We declared our intentions to preserve monarchy, and they still are so, unless necessity enforce an alteration.“

— Oliver Cromwell
Context: We declared our intentions to preserve monarchy, and they still are so, unless necessity enforce an alteration. It’s granted the king has broken his trust, yet you are fearful to declare you will make no further addresses... look on the people you represent, and break not your trust, and expose not the honest party of your kingdom, who have bled for you, and suffer not misery to fall upon them for want of courage and resolution in you, else the honest people may take such courses as nature dictates to them. Speech in the Commons during the debate which preceded the "Vote of No Addresses" (January 1648) as recorded in the diary of John Boys of Kent

„You have accounted yourselves happy on being environed with a great ditch from all the world beside.“

— Oliver Cromwell
Speech to Parliament http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=36871 (25 January 1658), quoted in The Diary of Thomas Burton, esq., volume 2: April 1657 - February 1658 (1828), p. 361

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„Do not trust to that; for these very persons would shout as much if you and I were going to be hanged.“

— Oliver Cromwell
Response to John Lambert's remarks that he "was glad to see we had the nation on our side" as they were cheered by a crowd in June 1650; as quoted by Gilbert Burnet in History of My Own Time http://books.google.com/books?id=-iswAAAAYAAJ&q="do+not+trust+to+that+for+these+very+persons+would+shout+as+much+if+you+and+I+were+going+to+be+hanged"&pg=PA145#v=onepage (1683); also in in God's Englishman by Christopher Hill (1970), Ch. VII, p. 188

„If the remonstrance had been rejected I would have sold all I had the next morning and never have seen England more, and I know there are many other modest men of the same resolution.“

— Oliver Cromwell
On the passing of the revolutionary Grand Remonstrance of November 1641 listing Parliament's grievances against King Charles I, as quoted in A History of the Rebellion (first published 1702 – 1704) by Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon (1609 - 1674)

„Men have been led in dark paths, through the providence and dispensation of God. Why, surely it is not to be objected to a man, for who can love to walk in the dark? But providence doth often so dispose.“

— Oliver Cromwell
Answer to the Conference at the Committee at Whitehall, Second Protectorate Parliament (13 April 1657), quoted in The Diary of Thomas Burton, esq., volume 2: April 1657 - February 1658 (1828), p. 504

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„When I went there, I did not think to have done this. But perceiving the spirit of God so strong upon me, I would not consult flesh and blood.“

— Oliver Cromwell
On his forcible dissolution of parliament (April 1653) quoted in Flagellum: or the Life and Death Birth and Burial of Oliver Cromwell the Late Usurper (1663) by James Heath

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