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Matthew Arnold

Data de nascimento: 24. Dezembro 1822
Data de falecimento: 15. Abril 1888

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Matthew Arnold foi um poeta e crítico britânico, um dos críticos literários e de costumes em que a Inglaterra Vitoriana melhor se espelha. Matthew Arnold foi um poeta prolífico e um intelectual voltado para a democratização do ensino.

Matthew Arnold nasceu em Laleham e era tio-avô de Aldous Huxley e primogênito de Thomas Arnold, diretor da célebre escola de Rugby. Formou-se em Oxford , onde ocupou mais tarde, de 1857 a 1867, a cátedra de poesia. Através de um idealismo de fundo ainda romântico, Arnold tornou-se moralista ,expondo seus métodos e critérios nos Essays in Criticism , onde exige da obra de arte a "crítica da vida" e a "alta seriedade".

Examinou o agnosticismo em Literature and Dogma - an Essay towards a Better Apprehension of the Bible. Vendo na estreiteza do puritanismo e no unitarismo econômico os dois grandes inimigos da europeização da cultura inglesa, combateu-os em Culture and Anarchy , ensaio sobre crítica e política social .

Um tom erudito manteve-se nas suas obras poéticas, reunidas em Poems e New poems .

Matthew Arnold morreu em Liverpool em 15 de abril de 1888.

Citações Matthew Arnold

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„We, in some unknown Power's employ,
Move on a rigorous line“

—  Matthew Arnold
Context: We, in some unknown Power's employ, Move on a rigorous line; Can neither, when we will, enjoy, Nor, when we will, resign. "Stanzas in Memory of the Author of "Obermann"" (1852), st. 34

„The what you have to say depends on your age.“

—  Matthew Arnold
Context: Had Shakespeare and Milton lived in the atmosphere of modern feeling, had they had the multitude of new thoughts and feelings to deal with a modern has, I think it likely the style of each would have been far less curious and exquisite. For in a man style is the saying in the best way what you have to say. The what you have to say depends on your age. In the 17th century it was a smaller harvest than now, and sooner to be reaped; and therefore to its reaper was left time to stow it more finely and curiously. Still more was this the case in the ancient world. The poet's matter being the hitherto experience of the world, and his own, increases with every century. Letter to Arthur Hugh Clough (December 1847/early 1848)

„Who saw life steadily, and saw it whole.“

—  Matthew Arnold
Context: But be his My special thanks, whose even-balanced soul, From first youth tested up to extreme old age, Business could not make dull, nor passion wild; Who saw life steadily, and saw it whole. "To a Friend" (1849), line 9-12

„The poet's matter being the hitherto experience of the world, and his own, increases with every century.“

—  Matthew Arnold
Context: Had Shakespeare and Milton lived in the atmosphere of modern feeling, had they had the multitude of new thoughts and feelings to deal with a modern has, I think it likely the style of each would have been far less curious and exquisite. For in a man style is the saying in the best way what you have to say. The what you have to say depends on your age. In the 17th century it was a smaller harvest than now, and sooner to be reaped; and therefore to its reaper was left time to stow it more finely and curiously. Still more was this the case in the ancient world. The poet's matter being the hitherto experience of the world, and his own, increases with every century. Letter to Arthur Hugh Clough (December 1847/early 1848)

„Yes, thou art gone! and round me too the night
In ever-nearing circle weaves her shade.“

—  Matthew Arnold, Thyrsis
Thyrsis (1866), Context: Yes, thou art gone! and round me too the night In ever-nearing circle weaves her shade. I see her veil draw soft across the day, I feel her slowly chilling breath invade The cheek grown thin, the brown hair sprent with grey; I feel her finger light Laid pausefully upon life’s headlong train; — The foot less prompt to meet the morning dew, The heart less bounding at emotion new, And hope, once crush’d, less quick to spring again. St. 14

„And we are here as on a darkling plain
Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight,
Where ignorant armies clash by night.“

—  Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach
Dover Beach (1867), Context: Ah, love, let us be true To one another! for the world, which seems To lie before us like a land of dreams, So various, so beautiful, so new, Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light, Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain; And we are here as on a darkling plain Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight, Where ignorant armies clash by night. St. 4

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„What actions are the most excellent? Those, certainly, which most powerfully appeal to the great primary human affections: to those elementary feelings which subsist permanently in the race, and which are independent of time.“

—  Matthew Arnold
Context: What actions are the most excellent? Those, certainly, which most powerfully appeal to the great primary human affections: to those elementary feelings which subsist permanently in the race, and which are independent of time. These feelings are permanent and the same; that which interests them is permanent and the same also. "Preface to Poems" (1853)

„We cannot kindle when we will
The fire that in the heart resides“

—  Matthew Arnold
Context: We cannot kindle when we will The fire that in the heart resides, The spirit bloweth and is still, In mystery our soul abides; — But tasks, in hours of insight willed, Can be through hours of gloom fulfilled. "Morality" (1852), st. 1

„Alas! is even love too weak
To unlock the heart, and let it speak?“

—  Matthew Arnold
Context: Alas! is even love too weak To unlock the heart, and let it speak? Are even lovers powerless to reveal To one another what indeed they feel? I knew the mass of men conceal'd Their thoughts, for fear that if reveal'd They would by other men be met With blank indifference, or with blame reproved; I knew they lived and moved Trick'd in disguises, alien to the rest Of men, and alien to themselves — and yet The same heart beats in every human breast! " The Buried Life http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/arnold/writings/buriedlife.html" (1852), st. 2

„It is important, therefore, to hold fast to this: that poetry is at bottom a criticism of life; that the greatness of a poet lies in his powerful and beautiful application of ideas to life — to the question, How to live.“

—  Matthew Arnold
Essays in Criticism, second series (1888), Context: If what distinguishes the greatest poets is their powerful and profound application of ideas to life, which surely no good critic will deny, then to prefix to the word ideas here the term moral makes hardly any difference, because human life itself is in so preponderating a degree moral. It is important, therefore, to hold fast to this: that poetry is at bottom a criticism of life; that the greatness of a poet lies in his powerful and beautiful application of ideas to life — to the question, How to live. Morals are often treated in a narrow and false fashion, they are bound up with systems of thought and belief which have had their day, they are fallen into the hands of pedants and professional dealers, they grow tiresome to some of us. We find attraction, at times, even in a poetry of revolt against them; in a poetry which might take for its motto Omar Khayam's words: "Let us make up in the tavern for the time which we have wasted in the mosque." Or we find attractions in a poetry indifferent to them, in a poetry where the contents may be what they will, but where the form is studied and exquisite. We delude ourselves in either case; and the best cure for our delusion is to let our minds rest upon that great and inexhaustible word life, until we learn to enter into its meaning. A poetry of revolt against moral ideas is a poetry of revolt against life; a poetry of indifference towards moral ideas is a poetry of indifference towards life. Wordsworth, originally published as "Preface to the Poems of Wordsworth" in Macmillan's Magazine (July 1879)

„A poetry of revolt against moral ideas is a poetry of revolt against life; a poetry of indifference towards moral ideas is a poetry of indifference towards life.“

—  Matthew Arnold
Essays in Criticism, second series (1888), Context: If what distinguishes the greatest poets is their powerful and profound application of ideas to life, which surely no good critic will deny, then to prefix to the word ideas here the term moral makes hardly any difference, because human life itself is in so preponderating a degree moral. It is important, therefore, to hold fast to this: that poetry is at bottom a criticism of life; that the greatness of a poet lies in his powerful and beautiful application of ideas to life — to the question, How to live. Morals are often treated in a narrow and false fashion, they are bound up with systems of thought and belief which have had their day, they are fallen into the hands of pedants and professional dealers, they grow tiresome to some of us. We find attraction, at times, even in a poetry of revolt against them; in a poetry which might take for its motto Omar Khayam's words: "Let us make up in the tavern for the time which we have wasted in the mosque." Or we find attractions in a poetry indifferent to them, in a poetry where the contents may be what they will, but where the form is studied and exquisite. We delude ourselves in either case; and the best cure for our delusion is to let our minds rest upon that great and inexhaustible word life, until we learn to enter into its meaning. A poetry of revolt against moral ideas is a poetry of revolt against life; a poetry of indifference towards moral ideas is a poetry of indifference towards life. Wordsworth, originally published as "Preface to the Poems of Wordsworth" in Macmillan's Magazine (July 1879)

„The heart less bounding at emotion new,
And hope, once crush’d, less quick to spring again.“

—  Matthew Arnold, Thyrsis
Thyrsis (1866), Context: Yes, thou art gone! and round me too the night In ever-nearing circle weaves her shade. I see her veil draw soft across the day, I feel her slowly chilling breath invade The cheek grown thin, the brown hair sprent with grey; I feel her finger light Laid pausefully upon life’s headlong train; — The foot less prompt to meet the morning dew, The heart less bounding at emotion new, And hope, once crush’d, less quick to spring again. St. 14

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“