Frases de Ludwig von Bertalanffy

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Ludwig von Bertalanffy

Data de nascimento: 19. Setembro 1901
Data de falecimento: 12. Junho 1972

Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy foi um biólogo austríaco.Foi o criador da teoria geral dos sistemas, autor do livro de mesmo nome. Cidadão austríaco, desenvolveu seu trabalho científico na Áustria até 1948 quando se mudou para a América do Norte, trabalhando no Canadá e nos Estados Unidos.

Bertalanffy fez os seus estudos em biologia e interessou-se desde cedo pelos organismos e pelos problemas do crescimento.

Os seus trabalhos iniciais datam dos anos 20 e são sobre a abordagem orgânica. Com efeito, Bertalanffy não concordava com a visão cartesiana do universo. Colocou então uma abordagem orgânica da biologia e tentou fazer aceitar a ideia de que o organismo é um todo maior que a soma das suas partes.

Criticou a visão de que o mundo é dividido em diferentes áreas, como física, química, biologia, psicologia, etc. Ao contrário, sugeria que se deve estudar sistemas globalmente, de forma a envolver todas as suas interdependências, pois cada um dos elementos, ao serem reunidos para constituir uma unidade funcional maior, desenvolvem qualidades que não se encontram em seus componentes isolados.

Citações Ludwig von Bertalanffy

„The 19th and first half of the 20th century conceived of the world as chaos. Chaos was the oft-quoted blind play of atoms, which, in mechanistic and positivistic philosophy, appeared to represent ultimate reality, with life as an accidental product of physical processes, and mind as an epi-phenomenon. It was chaos when, in the current theory of evolution, the living world appeared as a product of chance, the outcome of random mutations and survival in the mill of natural selection. In the same sense, human personality, in the theories of behaviorism as well as of psychoanalysis, was considered a chance product of nature and nurture, of a mixture of genes and an accidental sequence of events from early childhood to maturity.
Now we are looking for another basic outlook on the world -- the world as organization. Such a conception -- if it can be substantiated -- would indeed change the basic categories upon which scientific thought rests, and profoundly influence practical attitudes.
This trend is marked by the emergence of a bundle of new disciplines such as cybernetics, information theory, general system theory, theories of games, of decisions, of queuing and others; in practical applications, systems analysis, systems engineering, operations research, etc. They are different in basic assumptions, mathematical techniques and aims, and they are often unsatisfactory and sometimes contradictory. They agree, however, in being concerned, in one way or another, with "systems," "wholes" or "organizations"; and in their totality, they herald a new approach.“

—  Ludwig von Bertalanffy

Fonte: General System Theory (1968), 7. Some Aspects of System Theory in Biology, p. 166-167 as quoted in Lilienfeld (1978, pp. 7-8) and Alexander Laszlo and Stanley Krippner (1992) " Systems Theories: Their Origins, Foundations, and Development http://archive.syntonyquest.org/elcTree/resourcesPDFs/SystemsTheory.pdf" In: J.S. Jordan (Ed.), Systems Theories and A Priori Aspects of Perception. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1998. Ch. 3, pp. 47-74.

„The characteristic of life does not lie in a distinctiveness of single life processes. [Lebensvorgänge], but rather in a certain order among all the processes.“

—  Ludwig von Bertalanffy

Fonte: 1930s, L. von Bertalanffy (1934). "Wandlungen des biologischen Denkens", Neue Jahrbücher für Wissenschaft und Jugendbildung, 10:339-366; as cited in Manfred Drack (2008). " Ludwig von Bertalanffy's Early System Approach http://journals.isss.org/index.php/proceedings52nd/article/viewFile/1032/322"

„You cannot sum up the behavior of the whole from the isolated parts, and you have to take into account the relations between the various subordinate systems which are super-ordinated to them in order to understand the behavior of the parts.“

—  Ludwig von Bertalanffy

Fonte: General System Theory (1968), 3. Some System Concepts in Elementary Mathematical Consideration, p. 68 cited in: T.E. Weckowicz (1989). Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901-1972): A Pioneer of General Systems Theory. Working paper Feb 1989. p. 2

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„(a) There is a general tendency towards integration in the various sciences, natural and social. (b) Such integration seems to be centered in a general theory of systems. (c) Such theory may be an important means of aiming at exact theory in the nonphysical fields of science. (d) Developing unifying principles running "vertically" through the universe of the individual sciences, this theory brings us nearer to the goal of the unity of sciences. (e) This can lead to a much needed integration in scientific education.“

—  Ludwig von Bertalanffy

Variante: Mayor aims of general theory:
(1) There is a general tendency toward integration in the various sciences, natural and social.
(2) Such integration seems to be centered in a general theory of systems.
(3) Such theory may be an important means for aiming at exact theory in the nonphysical fields of science.
(4) Developing unifying principles running "vertically" through the universe of the individual sciences, this theory brings us nearer the goal of the unity of science.
(5) This can lead to a much-needed integration in scientific education.
Fonte: 1950s, "General systems theory," 1956, p. 38, cited in: Alexander Laszlo and Stanley Krippner (1992) " Systems Theories: Their Origins, Foundations, and Development http://archive.syntonyquest.org/elcTree/resourcesPDFs/SystemsTheory.pdf" In: J.S. Jordan (Ed.), Systems Theories and A Priori Aspects of Perception. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1998. Ch. 3, pp. 47-74.

„We are confronted with problems of organized complexity… organization runs through all levels of reality and science.“

—  Ludwig von Bertalanffy

Fonte: 1960s, Robots, Men and Minds (1967), p. 58. as cited in: Doede Keuning (1973) Algemene systeemtheorie. p. 185

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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