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L. Ron Hubbard

Data de nascimento: 13. Março 1911
Data de falecimento: 24. Janeiro 1986
Outros nomes:Ron Hubbard

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Lafayette Ronald Hubbard , mais conhecido como L. Ron Hubbard, ou ainda LRH, foi um escritor pulp norte-americano e fundador da Igreja da Cientologia. Depois de estabelecer uma carreira como autor, mais famoso por suas histórias de ficção científica e fantasia, ele desenvolveu um sistema de auto-ajuda chamado Dianética, que foi publicado pela primeira vez em maio de 1950. Hubbard subsequentemente desenvolveu suas ideias em uma ampla gama de doutrinas e rituais que seriam parte de um novo movimento religioso que ele chamou de Cientologia. Suas obras se tornaram textos-guias para a Igreja da Cientologia e para várias organizações afiliadas que abordam temas diversos como negócios, administração, alfabetismo e reabilitação.

Apesar de muitos aspectos da vida de Hubbard serem contestados, há um consenso geral sobre algumas informações básicas. Nascido em Tilden, Nebraska, ele passou grande parte de sua infância em Helena, Montana. Ele viajou para a Ásia e o Pacífico Sul no final da década de 1920 após seu pai, um oficial da Marinha dos Estados Unidos, ter sido transferido para uma base em Guam. Ele estudou na Universidade George Washington em Washington, D.C. no início da década de 1930, antes de sair e começar uma carreira como escritor de histórias para revistas pulp. Ele brevemente serviu na Reserva do Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais e foi um oficial da marinha durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, comandando dois navios, o USS YP-422 e o USS PC-815, por um curto período de tempo. Ele foi removido dos dois comandos quando seus superiores o consideraram incapaz de comandar. Os últimos meses de seu serviço foram passados em um hospital tratando uma úlcera péptica.

Hubbard mais tarde desenvolveu a Dianética, "a ciência moderna da saúde mental". Fundou a Cientologia em 1952 e supervisionou o crescimento da igreja em uma organização mundial. No final da década de 1960 e início da de 1970, ele passou a maior parte do tempo no mar junto da sua frota de navios como "Comodoro" da Sea Organization, um grupo de elite dos cientologistas. Sua expedição chegou ao fim quando o Reino Unido, Grécia, Espanha, Portugal e Venezuela fecharam seus portos para ele. Em certo ponto, um tribunal na Austrália revogou o status de religião da igreja. Similarmente, um tribunal da França condenou Hubbard por fraude. Ele voltou para os Estados Unidos em 1975, entrando em retiro na Califórnia. Em 1983, Hubbard foi chamado de co-conspirador indireto num esquema de infiltração internacional de informação e projeto de roubo chamado "Operação Branca de Neve". Ele passou seus últimos anos em um rancho perto de Creston, Califórnia, morrendo em 1986.

A Igreja da Cientologia descreve Hubbard em termos hagiográficos, e ele se retratou como explorador, viajante, físico nuclear e especialista em várias áreas, como fotografia, arte, poesia e filosofia. Seus críticos o caracterizaram como mentiroso, charlatão e mentalmente instável. Apesar de muitas de suas afirmações autobiográficas terem provado-se ser fictícias, a Igreja rejeita qualquer sugestão de que seus relatos da vida de Hubbard não são fatos históricos.

== Referências ==

Citações L. Ron Hubbard

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„Living is a pretty grim joke, but a joke just the same.“

— L. Ron Hubbard
Context: Living is a pretty grim joke, but a joke just the same. The entire function of man is to survive. The outermost limit of endeavour is creative work. Anything less is too close to simple survival until death happens along. So I am engaged in striving to maintain equilibrium sufficient to at least realize survival in a way to astound the gods. I turned the thing up so it's up to me to survive in a big way... Foolishly perhaps, but determined none the less, I have high hopes of smashing my name into history so violently that it will take a legendary form even if all books are destroyed. [http://bernie.cncfamily.com/sc/excalibur.htm A letter to his wife Polly (October 1938)], quoted in [http://www.discord.org/~lippard/bfm/bfm05.htm#81 Bare-faced Messiah: The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard (1987), p. 81].

„Man is sick and nations have gone mad.“

— L. Ron Hubbard
Context: Man is sick and nations have gone mad. You would not even tolerate for one moment the conduct in an individual that is commonplace in the acts of some nations. You would lock up such a person. "Times Must Change" in Ability # 179 (20 March 1966).

„The subject of philosophy is very ancient. The word means: "The love, study or pursuit of wisdom, or of knowledge of things and their causes, whether theoretical or practical."“

— L. Ron Hubbard
Context: The subject of philosophy is very ancient. The word means: "The love, study or pursuit of wisdom, or of knowledge of things and their causes, whether theoretical or practical." All we know of science or of religion comes from philosophy. It lies behind and above all other knowledge we have or use. [http://www.foundingchurchdc.org/dc/ref/philo/index.htm My Philosophy (1965)].

„Here on Earth there was undoubtedly a Christ“

— L. Ron Hubbard
Context: Here on Earth there was undoubtedly a Christ. One of the reasons he swept in so suddenly and he would go forward so hard is, he had a good assist in back of him in terms of an implant. Philadelphia Doctorate Courses, lecture 24 (1952).

„The one man in the world who never believes he's mad is the madman.“

— L. Ron Hubbard
Context: Oh yes! The one man in the world who never believes he's mad is the madman. In answer to the question as to whether he ever thought he might be quite mad. Granada Television [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L_w-YWwC1lI#t=1503 documentary on Scientology].

„I have high hopes of smashing my name into history so violently that it will take a legendary form even if all books are destroyed.“

— L. Ron Hubbard
Context: Living is a pretty grim joke, but a joke just the same. The entire function of man is to survive. The outermost limit of endeavour is creative work. Anything less is too close to simple survival until death happens along. So I am engaged in striving to maintain equilibrium sufficient to at least realize survival in a way to astound the gods. I turned the thing up so it's up to me to survive in a big way... Foolishly perhaps, but determined none the less, I have high hopes of smashing my name into history so violently that it will take a legendary form even if all books are destroyed. [http://bernie.cncfamily.com/sc/excalibur.htm A letter to his wife Polly (October 1938)], quoted in [http://www.discord.org/~lippard/bfm/bfm05.htm#81 Bare-faced Messiah: The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard (1987), p. 81].

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„Ideas and not battles mark the forward progress of mankind.“

— L. Ron Hubbard
Context: Ideas and not battles mark the forward progress of mankind. Individuals, and not masses, form the culture of the race.

„You don't get rich writing science fiction. If you want to get rich, you start a religion.“

— L. Ron Hubbard
Response to a question from the audience during a meeting of the Eastern Science Fiction Association on (7 November 1948), as quoted in a 1994 affidavit by Sam Moskowitz. This statement is similar or identical to [http://www.bible.ca/scientology-1million-start-a-religion.htm several statements] Hubbard is reported to have made to various individuals or groups in the 1940s. Variants include: The incident is stamped indelibly in my mind because of one statement that Ron Hubbard made. What led him to say what he did I can't recall — but in so many words Hubbard said: "I'd like to start a religion. That's where the money is!" L. Ron Hubbard to Lloyd A. Eshbach, in 1949; as quoted by Eshbach in his autobiography Over My Shoulder: Reflections On A Science Fiction Era (1983) . <!-- Donald M. Grant Publisher --> Y'know, we're all wasting our time writing this hack science fiction! You wanta make real money, you gotta start a religion! As reported to Mike Jittlov by Theodore Sturgeon as a statement Hubbard made while at the Los Angeles Science Fantasy Society clubhouse in the 1940s. Writing for a penny a word is ridiculous. If a man really wanted to make a million dollars, the best way to do it would be start his own religion. As quoted in the Los Angeles Times (27 August 1978) Writing for a penny a word is ridiculous. If a man really wants to make a million dollars, the best way would be to start his own religion. As quoted in the article "Scientology: Anatomy of a Frightening Cult" by Eugene H. Methvin. Reader's Digest (May 1980). I always knew he was exceedingly anxious to hit big money — he used to say he thought the best way to do it would be to start a cult. Sam Merwin, Editor of Thrilling Science Fiction magazine Winter of 1946-47; quoted in Bare-Faced Messiah, The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard (1987) by Russell Miller Whenever he was talking about being hard up he often used to say that he thought the easiest way to make money would be to start a religion. Neison Himmel, briefly a roommate of Hubbard in Pasadena during the fall of 1945, in a 1986 interview, quoted in Bare-Faced Messiah, The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard (1987) by Russell Miller.

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