Frases de John Kenneth Galbraith

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John Kenneth Galbraith

Data de nascimento: 15. Outubro 1908
Data de falecimento: 29. Abril 2006

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John Kenneth Galbraith foi um economista, filósofo e escritor estado-unidense, conhecido por suas posições keynesianas.

Galbraith foi cético perante as extravagâncias da "teoria econômica quando não justificadas pelos dados empíricos". Por exemplo, no seu livro intitulado "In The New Industrial State" , afirma que muito poucas indústrias nos Estados Unidos enquadram-se no modelo da concorrência perfeita.

Conhecido por suas posições liberais-sociais, foi assessor econômico do presidente John Kennedy e publicou diversos livros, entre os quais The Affluent Society , no ano de 1958, em que critica a política econômica dos Estados Unidos. Aposentado como professor universitário em 1957, publicou em 1981 a autobiografia A Life in Our Times: Memoirs .

Citações John Kenneth Galbraith

„A economia é extremamente útil para empregar economistas.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Fonte: Revista Caras http://www.caras.com.br/, 16 de agosto de 2006

„O poder não é algo que possa ser assumido e posto de lado como a roupa interior.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Power is not something that can be assumed or discarded at will like underwear "The new industrial state" - página 127, John Kenneth Galbraith - Houghton Mifflin, 1967 - 427 páginas

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„Nada mais eficaz para limitar a liberdade, incluindo a liberdade de expressão, como a total falta de dinheiro“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
nothing more effectively limits freedom, including freedom of expression, as the total lack of money citado em "Moving Frontiers: Economic Restructuring, Regional Development, and Emerging Networks‎" - Página 68, de Juan R. Cuadrado Roura, Peter Nijkamp, Pere Salva - Publicado por Avebury, 1994, ISBN 1856289052, 9781856289054 - 336 páginas

„A política não é a arte do possível. Ela consiste em escolher entre o desagradável e o desastroso.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Politics is not the art of the possible. It consists in choosing between the disastrous and the unpalatable. carta a John F. Kennedy (02-mar-1962), conforme "Galbraith's Ambassador's Journal" (1969)

„I react pragmatically. Where the market works, I'm for that. Where the government is necessary, I'm for that. I'm deeply suspicious of somebody who says, "I'm in favor of privatization," or, "I'm deeply in favor of public ownership." I'm in favor of whatever works in the particular case.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Booknotes interview (1994), Context: I react to what is necessary. I would like to eschew any formula. There are some things where the government is absolutely inevitable, which we cannot get along without comprehensive state action. But there are many things — producing consumer goods, producing a wide range of entertainment, producing a wide level of cultural activity — where the market system, which independent activity is also important, so I react pragmatically. Where the market works, I'm for that. Where the government is necessary, I'm for that. I'm deeply suspicious of somebody who says, "I'm in favor of privatization," or, "I'm deeply in favor of public ownership." I'm in favor of whatever works in the particular case.

„To add to the technostructure is to increase its power in the enterprise.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith, livro The New Industrial State
The New Industrial State (1967), Chapter XXI, Section 2, p. 236

„I react to what is necessary. I would like to eschew any formula.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Booknotes interview (1994), Context: I react to what is necessary. I would like to eschew any formula. There are some things where the government is absolutely inevitable, which we cannot get along without comprehensive state action. But there are many things — producing consumer goods, producing a wide range of entertainment, producing a wide level of cultural activity — where the market system, which independent activity is also important, so I react pragmatically. Where the market works, I'm for that. Where the government is necessary, I'm for that. I'm deeply suspicious of somebody who says, "I'm in favor of privatization," or, "I'm deeply in favor of public ownership." I'm in favor of whatever works in the particular case.

„The Senate has unlimited debate; in the House, debate is ruthlessly circumscribed. There is frequent discussion as to which technique most effectively frustrates democratic process.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
The United States (1971), Context: The Senate has unlimited debate; in the House, debate is ruthlessly circumscribed. There is frequent discussion as to which technique most effectively frustrates democratic process. However, a more important antidote to American democracy is American gerontocracy. The positions of eminence and authority in Congress are allotted in accordance with length of service, regardless of quality. Superficial observers have long criticized the United States for making a fetish of youth. This is unfair. Uniquely among modern organs of public and private administration, its national legislature rewards senility.

„When the modern corporation acquires power over markets, power in the community, power over the state and power over belief, it is a political instrument, different in degree but not in kind from the state itself.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Power and the Useful Economist (1973), Context: When the modern corporation acquires power over markets, power in the community, power over the state and power over belief, it is a political instrument, different in degree but not in kind from the state itself. To hold otherwise — to deny the political character of the modern corporation — is not merely to avoid the reality. It is to disguise the reality. The victims of that disguise are those we instruct in error. The beneficiaries are the institutions whose power we so disguise. Let there be no question: economics, so long as it is thus taught, becomes, however unconsciously, a part of the arrangement by which the citizen or student is kept from seeing how he or she is, or will be, governed.

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„Total physical and mental inertia are highly agreeable, much more so than we allow ourselves to imagine.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Context: Total physical and mental inertia are highly agreeable, much more so than we allow ourselves to imagine. A beach not only permits such inertia but enforces it, thus neatly eliminating all problems of guilt. It is now the only place in our overly active world that does. Foreword to The Beach Book by Gloria Steinem (1963); reprinted in Galbraith's A View from the Stands (1986)

„We now in the United States have more security guards for the rich than we have police services for the poor districts.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Context: We now in the United States have more security guards for the rich than we have police services for the poor districts. If you're looking for personal security, far better to move to the suburbs than to pay taxes in New York. The Guardian [UK] (23 May 1992)

„Few can believe that suffering, especially by others, is in vain.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
The Age of Uncertainty (1977), Context: Few can believe that suffering, especially by others, is in vain. Anything that is disagreeable must surely have beneficial economic effects. Chapter 7, p. 211

„To pay off the debt was to destroy the money supply.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Money: Whence It Came, Where It Went (1975), Context: In numerous years following the war the Federal government ran a heavy surplus. It could not pay off it's debt, retire its securities, because to do so meant there would be no bonds to back the national bank notes. To pay off the debt was to destroy the money supply. Chapter VIII, The Great Compromise, p. 90

„In the usual (though certainly not in every) public decision on economic policy, the choice is between courses that are almost equally good or equally bad. It is the narrowest decisions that are most ardently debated.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Context: In the usual (though certainly not in every) public decision on economic policy, the choice is between courses that are almost equally good or equally bad. It is the narrowest decisions that are most ardently debated. If the world is lucky enough to enjoy peace, it may even one day make the discovery, to the horror of doctrinaire free-enterprisers and doctrinaire planners alike, that what is called capitalism and what is called socialism are both capable of working quite well. "The American Economy: Its Substance and Myth," quoted in Years of the Modern (1949), edited by J.W. Chase

„People are the common denominator of progress.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith
Context: People are the common denominator of progress. So, paucis verbis, no improvement is possible with unimproved people, and advance is certain when people are liberated and educated. It would be wrong to dismiss the importance of roads, railroads, power plants, mills, and the other familiar furniture of economic development. At some stages of development — the stage that India and Pakistan have reached, for example — they are central to the strategy of development. But we are coming to realize, I think, that there is a certain sterility in economic monuments that stand alone in a sea of illiteracy. Conquest of illiteracy comes first. Economic Development (1964), ch. 2

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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