Frases de John Kenneth Galbraith

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John Kenneth Galbraith

Data de nascimento: 15. Outubro 1908
Data de falecimento: 29. Abril 2006

John Kenneth Galbraith foi um economista, filósofo e escritor estado-unidense, conhecido por suas posições keynesianas.

Galbraith foi cético perante as extravagâncias da "teoria econômica quando não justificadas pelos dados empíricos". Por exemplo, no seu livro intitulado "In The New Industrial State" , afirma que muito poucas indústrias nos Estados Unidos enquadram-se no modelo da concorrência perfeita.

Conhecido por suas posições liberais-sociais, foi assessor econômico do presidente John Kennedy e publicou diversos livros, entre os quais The Affluent Society , no ano de 1958, em que critica a política econômica dos Estados Unidos. Aposentado como professor universitário em 1957, publicou em 1981 a autobiografia A Life in Our Times: Memoirs .

Citações John Kenneth Galbraith

„A economia é extremamente útil para empregar economistas.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith

Fonte: Revista Caras http://www.caras.com.br/, 16 de agosto de 2006

„A política não é a arte do possível. Ela consiste em escolher entre o desagradável e o desastroso.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith

Politics is not the art of the possible. It consists in choosing between the disastrous and the unpalatable.
carta a John F. Kennedy (02-mar-1962), conforme "Galbraith's Ambassador's Journal" (1969)

„Nada mais eficaz para limitar a liberdade, incluindo a liberdade de expressão, como a total falta de dinheiro“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith

nothing more effectively limits freedom, including freedom of expression, as the total lack of money
citado em "Moving Frontiers: Economic Restructuring, Regional Development, and Emerging Networks‎" - Página 68, de Juan R. Cuadrado Roura, Peter Nijkamp, Pere Salva - Publicado por Avebury, 1994, ISBN 1856289052, 9781856289054 - 336 páginas

„O poder não é algo que possa ser assumido e posto de lado como a roupa interior.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith

Power is not something that can be assumed or discarded at will like underwear
"The new industrial state" - página 127, John Kenneth Galbraith - Houghton Mifflin, 1967 - 427 páginas

„Few can believe that suffering, especially by others, is in vain.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith

Fonte: The Age of Uncertainty (1977), Chapter 7, p. 211
Contexto: Few can believe that suffering, especially by others, is in vain. Anything that is disagreeable must surely have beneficial economic effects.

„People are the common denominator of progress.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith

Economic Development (1964), ch. 2
Contexto: People are the common denominator of progress. So, paucis verbis, no improvement is possible with unimproved people, and advance is certain when people are liberated and educated. It would be wrong to dismiss the importance of roads, railroads, power plants, mills, and the other familiar furniture of economic development. At some stages of development — the stage that India and Pakistan have reached, for example — they are central to the strategy of development. But we are coming to realize, I think, that there is a certain sterility in economic monuments that stand alone in a sea of illiteracy. Conquest of illiteracy comes first.

„When you see reference to a new paradigm you should always, under all circumstances, take cover.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith

As quoted in "Galbraith on crashes, Japan and Walking Sticks" by Ben Laurance and William Keegan, in The Observer (21 June 1998)
Contexto: When you see reference to a new paradigm you should always, under all circumstances, take cover. Because ever since the great tulipmania in 1637, speculation has always been covered by a new paradigm. There was never a paradigm so new and so wonderful as the one that covered John Law and the South Sea Bubble — until the day of disaster.

„If the state is the executive committee of the great corporation and the planning system, it is partly because neoclassical economics is its instrument for neutralizing the suspicion that this is so.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith

Power and the Useful Economist (1973)
Contexto: This is what economics now does. It tells the young and susceptible (and also the old and vulnerable) that economic life has no content of power and politics because the firm is safely subordinate to the market and the state and for this reason it is safely at the command of the consumer and citizen. Such an economics is not neutral. It is the influential and invaluable ally of those whose exercise of power depends on an acquiescent public. If the state is the executive committee of the great corporation and the planning system, it is partly because neoclassical economics is its instrument for neutralizing the suspicion that this is so.

„I react to what is necessary. I would like to eschew any formula.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith

Booknotes interview (1994)
Contexto: I react to what is necessary. I would like to eschew any formula. There are some things where the government is absolutely inevitable, which we cannot get along without comprehensive state action. But there are many things — producing consumer goods, producing a wide range of entertainment, producing a wide level of cultural activity — where the market system, which independent activity is also important, so I react pragmatically. Where the market works, I'm for that. Where the government is necessary, I'm for that. I'm deeply suspicious of somebody who says, "I'm in favor of privatization," or, "I'm deeply in favor of public ownership." I'm in favor of whatever works in the particular case.

„To add to the technostructure is to increase its power in the enterprise.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith, livro The New Industrial State

Fonte: The New Industrial State (1967), Chapter XXI, Section 2, p. 236

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„Two men jumped hand-in-hand from a high window in the Ritz. They had a joint account.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith, livro The Great Crash, 1929

Fonte: The Great Crash, 1929 (1954 and 1997 https://openlibrary.org/books/OL25728842M/The_Great_Crash_1929), Chapter VII, Things Become More Serious, Section VIII, p. 131-132
Contexto: Clerks in downtown hotels were said to be asking guests whether they wished the room for sleeping or jumping. Two men jumped hand-in-hand from a high window in the Ritz. They had a joint account.

„The first goal of the technostructure is its own security.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith, livro The New Industrial State

Fonte: The New Industrial State (1967), Chapter XXIII, Section 2, p. 265

„All successful revolutions are the kicking in of a rotten door.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith

Fonte: The Age of Uncertainty (1977), Chapter 3, "The Massive Dissent of Karl Marx" p. 96
Contexto: All successful revolutions are the kicking in of a rotten door. The violence of revolutions is the violence of men who charge into a vacuum.

„The Senate has unlimited debate; in the House, debate is ruthlessly circumscribed. There is frequent discussion as to which technique most effectively frustrates democratic process.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith

The United States (1971)
Contexto: The Senate has unlimited debate; in the House, debate is ruthlessly circumscribed. There is frequent discussion as to which technique most effectively frustrates democratic process. However, a more important antidote to American democracy is American gerontocracy. The positions of eminence and authority in Congress are allotted in accordance with length of service, regardless of quality. Superficial observers have long criticized the United States for making a fetish of youth. This is unfair. Uniquely among modern organs of public and private administration, its national legislature rewards senility.

„Total physical and mental inertia are highly agreeable, much more so than we allow ourselves to imagine.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith

Foreword to The Beach Book by Gloria Steinem (1963); reprinted in Galbraith's A View from the Stands (1986)
Contexto: Total physical and mental inertia are highly agreeable, much more so than we allow ourselves to imagine. A beach not only permits such inertia but enforces it, thus neatly eliminating all problems of guilt. It is now the only place in our overly active world that does.

„We now in the United States have more security guards for the rich than we have police services for the poor districts.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith

The Guardian [UK] (23 May 1992)
Contexto: We now in the United States have more security guards for the rich than we have police services for the poor districts. If you're looking for personal security, far better to move to the suburbs than to pay taxes in New York.

„I react pragmatically. Where the market works, I'm for that. Where the government is necessary, I'm for that. I'm deeply suspicious of somebody who says, "I'm in favor of privatization," or, "I'm deeply in favor of public ownership." I'm in favor of whatever works in the particular case.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith

Booknotes interview (1994)
Contexto: I react to what is necessary. I would like to eschew any formula. There are some things where the government is absolutely inevitable, which we cannot get along without comprehensive state action. But there are many things — producing consumer goods, producing a wide range of entertainment, producing a wide level of cultural activity — where the market system, which independent activity is also important, so I react pragmatically. Where the market works, I'm for that. Where the government is necessary, I'm for that. I'm deeply suspicious of somebody who says, "I'm in favor of privatization," or, "I'm deeply in favor of public ownership." I'm in favor of whatever works in the particular case.

„When the modern corporation acquires power over markets, power in the community, power over the state and power over belief, it is a political instrument, different in degree but not in kind from the state itself.“

—  John Kenneth Galbraith

Power and the Useful Economist (1973)
Contexto: When the modern corporation acquires power over markets, power in the community, power over the state and power over belief, it is a political instrument, different in degree but not in kind from the state itself. To hold otherwise — to deny the political character of the modern corporation — is not merely to avoid the reality. It is to disguise the reality. The victims of that disguise are those we instruct in error. The beneficiaries are the institutions whose power we so disguise. Let there be no question: economics, so long as it is thus taught, becomes, however unconsciously, a part of the arrangement by which the citizen or student is kept from seeing how he or she is, or will be, governed.

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