Frases de Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget photo
7   60

Jean Piaget

Data de nascimento: 9. Agosto 1896
Data de falecimento: 16. Setembro 1980

Jean William Fritz Piaget foi um biólogo, psicólogo e epistemólogo suíço, considerado um dos mais importantes pensadores do século XX. Defendeu uma abordagem interdisciplinar para a investigação epistemológica e fundou a Epistemologia Genética, teoria do conhecimento com base no estudo da gênese psicológica do pensamento humano.Estudou inicialmente biologia na Universidade de Neuchâtel onde concluiu o seu doutorado e, posteriormente, se dedicou à área de Psicologia, Epistemologia e Educação. Foi professor de psicologia na Universidade de Genebra de 1929 a 1954, e tornou-se mundialmente reconhecido pela sua revolução epistemológica. Durante sua vida Piaget escreveu mais de cinquenta livros e diversas centenas de artigos.

Piaget também teve um considerável impacto no campo da ciência da computação. Seymour Papert usou o trabalho de Piaget como fundamentação ao desenvolver a linguagem de programação Logo. Alan Kay usou as teorias de Piaget como base para o sistema conceitual de programação Dynabook, que foi inicialmente discutido em Xerox PARC. Estas discussões levaram ao desenvolvimento do protótipo Alto, que explorou pela primeira vez os elementos do GUI, ou Interface Gráfica do Usuário, e influenciou a criação de interfaces de usuário a partir dos anos 1980.

Em 1919, viaja para Paris e começa a trabalhar no Instituto Jean-Jacques Rousseau, quando publica os primeiros artigos sobre a criança. O nascimento dos filhos amplia o convívio diário com a "criança pequena" e possibilita o registro de observações que geram novas hipóteses sobre as origens da cognição humana. Durante sua estadia em Paris, Piaget conhece Théodore Simon, que o convida a padronizar os "testes de raciocínio de Cyril Burt, desenvolvidos nos Estados Unidos, experiência que lhe permitiu delimitar um campo de estudos empíricos: o pensamento infantil e o raciocínio lógico. Como resultado desse trabalho, Piaget é convidado para o cargo de coordenador de pesquisas do Instituto, função que inclui a "Maison des Petits" .

Citações Jean Piaget

„As estruturas operatórias da inteligência não são inatas.“

—  Jean Piaget

veja a respeito em "Revista de divulgação cultural", Edições 21-25; Edições 27-28‎ - Página 9, FURB, 1984

„O principal objetivo da educação é criar pessoas capazes de fazer coisas novas e não simplesmente repetir o que as outras gerações fizeram.“

—  Jean Piaget

citado em "Correntes pedagógicas: aproximações com a teologia‎" - Página 96, de Danilo Romeu Streck - Vozes, 1994, ISBN 8532612164, 9788532612168 - 136 páginas

„If children fail to understand one another, it is because they think they understand one another.“

—  Jean Piaget

The Language and Thought of the Child (1923) Tr. Marjorie and Ruth Gabain (1926)
Contexto: If children fail to understand one another, it is because they think they understand one another. The explainer believes from the start that the reproducer will grasp everything, will almost know beforehand all that should be known, and will interpret every subtlety. Children are perpetually surrounded by adults who not only know much more than they do, but who also do everything in their power to understand them, who even anticipate their thoughts and desires. Children, therefore... are perpetually under the impression that people can read their thoughts, and in extreme cases, can steal their thoughts away. It is obviously owing to this mentality that children do not take the trouble to express themselves clearly... This mentality does not contradict ego-centric mentality. Both arise from the belief of the child, the belief that he is the centre of the universe. These habits of thought account... for the remarkable lack of precision in the childish style.

Help us translate English quotes

Discover interesting quotes and translate them.

Start translating

„When the child comes to draw things as he sees them, it will be precisely because he has given up taking isolated objects in and for themselves and has begun to construct real systems of relations which take account of the true perspective in which things are connected.“

—  Jean Piaget

Fonte: The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932), Ch. 2 : Adult Constraint and Moral Realism <!-- p. 185 -->
Contexto: To perceive is to construct intellectually, and if the child draws things as he conceives them, it is certainly because he cannot perceive them without conceiving them. But to give up gradually the spurious absolutes situated away and apart from the context of relations that has been built up during experience itself is the work of a superior kind of rationality. When the child comes to draw things as he sees them, it will be precisely because he has given up taking isolated objects in and for themselves and has begun to construct real systems of relations which take account of the true perspective in which things are connected.

„There are therefore three types of behavior: motor behavior, egocentric behavior (with external constraint), and cooperation.“

—  Jean Piaget

Fonte: The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932), Ch. 1 : The Rules of the Game, § 8 : Conclusions : Motor Rules and the Two Kinds of Respect <!-- p. 86 -->
Contexto: A second prefatory question faces us: that of society and the individual. We have sought to contrast the child and the civilized adult on the ground of their respective social attitudes. The baby (at the stage of motor intelligence) is asocial, the egocentric child is subject to external constraint but has little capacity for cooperation, the civilized adult of to-day presents the essential character of cooperation between differentiated personalities who regard each other as equals.
There are therefore three types of behavior: motor behavior, egocentric behavior (with external constraint), and cooperation. And to these three types of social behavior there correspond three types of rules: motor rules, rules due to unilateral respect, and rules due to mutual respect.
But here again, one must beware of laying down the law: for things are motor, individual and social all at once. As we shall have occasion to show, rules of cooperation are in some respects the outcome of the rules of coercion and of the motor rules. On the other hand, coercion is applied during the first days of an infant's life, and the earliest social relations contain the germs of cooperation. Here again, it is not so much a question of these successive features themselves as of the proportions in which they are present. Moreover, the way in which conscious realization and the time-lag from one level to another come into play is a further bar to our arranging these phenomena in a strict sequence, as though they made a single appearance and then disappeared from the scene once and for all.

„To perceive is to construct intellectually, and if the child draws things as he conceives them, it is certainly because he cannot perceive them without conceiving them.“

—  Jean Piaget

Fonte: The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932), Ch. 2 : Adult Constraint and Moral Realism <!-- p. 185 -->
Contexto: To perceive is to construct intellectually, and if the child draws things as he conceives them, it is certainly because he cannot perceive them without conceiving them. But to give up gradually the spurious absolutes situated away and apart from the context of relations that has been built up during experience itself is the work of a superior kind of rationality. When the child comes to draw things as he sees them, it will be precisely because he has given up taking isolated objects in and for themselves and has begun to construct real systems of relations which take account of the true perspective in which things are connected.

„Every observer has noted that the younger the child, the less sense he has of his own ego.“

—  Jean Piaget

Fonte: The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932), Ch. 1 : The Rules of the Game, § 8 : Conclusions : Motor Rules and the Two Kinds of Respect
Contexto: Every observer has noted that the younger the child, the less sense he has of his own ego. From the intellectual point of view, he does not distinguish between external and internal, subjective and objective. From the point of view of action, he yields to every suggestion, and if he does oppose to other people's wills — a certain negativism which has been called "the spirit of contradiction" — this only points to his real defenselessness against his surroundings. A strong personality can maintain itself without the help of this particular weapon. The adult and the older child have complete power over him. They impose their opinions and their wishes, and the child accepts them without knowing that he does so. Only — and this is the other side of the picture — as the child does not dissociate his ego from the environment, whether physical or social, he mixes into all his thoughts and all his actions, ideas and practices that are due to the intervention of his ego and which, just because he fails to recognize them as subjective, exercise a check upon his complete socialization. From the intellectual point of view, he mingles his own fantasies with accepted opinions, whence arise pseudo lies (or sincere lies), syncretism, and all the features of child thought. From the point of view of action, he interprets in his own fashion the examples he has adopted, whence the egocentric form of play we were examining above. The only way of avoiding these individual refractions would lie in true cooperation, such that both child and senior would each make allowance for his own individuality and for the realities that were held in common.

„The motor rule is therefore the result of a feeling of repetition which arises out of the ritualization of schemas of motor adaptation.“

—  Jean Piaget

Fonte: The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932), Ch. 1 : The Rules of the Game, § 8 : Conclusions : Motor Rules and the Two Kinds of Respect
Contexto: The motor rule. In its beginnings the motor rule merges into habit. During the first few months of an infant's life, its manner of taking the breast, of laying its head on the pillow, etc., becomes crystallized into imperative habits. This is why education must begin in the cradle. To accustom the infant to get out of its own difficulties or to calm it by rocking it may be to lay the foundations of a good or of a bad disposition.
But not every habit will give rise to the knowledge of a rule. The habit must first be frustrated, and the ensuing conflict must lead to an active search for the habitual. Above all, the particular succession must be perceived as regular, i. e. there must be judgment or consciousness of regularity (Regelbewusstseiri). The motor rule is therefore the result of a feeling of repetition which arises out of the ritualization of schemas of motor adaptation. <!-- The primitive rules of the game of marbles (throwing the marbles, heaping them, burying them, etc.) which we observed towards the age of 2-3 are nothing else. The behavior in question starts from a desire for a form of exercise which takes account of the particular object that is being handled. The child begins by incorporating the marbles into one or other of the schemas of assimilation already known to him, such as making a nest, hiding under earth, etc. Then he adapts these schemas to the nature of the object by preventing the marbles from rolling away by putting them in a hole, by throwing them, etc.

„The later are not derived from the former but are partly antagonistic to them.“

—  Jean Piaget

Fonte: The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932), Ch. 1 : The Rules of the Game, § 8 : Conclusions : Motor Rules and the Two Kinds of Respect <!-- p. 85 -->
Contexto: In certain circumstances where he experiments in new types of conduct by cooperating with his equals, the child is already an adult. There is an adult in every child and a child in every adult. … There exist in the child certain attitudes and beliefs which intellectual development will more and more tend to eliminate: there are others which will acquire more and more importance. The later are not derived from the former but are partly antagonistic to them.

„In real life the child is in the presence, not of isolated acts, but of personalities that attract or repel him as a global whole.“

—  Jean Piaget

Fonte: The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932), Ch. 2 : Adult Constraint and Moral Realism, § 1 : The Method <!-- p. 116 -->
Ch. 2 : Adult Constraint and Moral Realism p. 132 -->
Contexto: In real life the child is in the presence, not of isolated acts, but of personalities that attract or repel him as a global whole. He grasps people's intentions by direct intuition and cannot therefore abstract from them. He allows, more or less justly, for aggravating and attenuating circumstances. This is why the stories told by the children themselves often give rise to different evaluations from those suggested by the experimenter's stories.

„There are in existence two distinct ideas of justice. We say that an award is unjust when it penalizes the innocent, rewards the guilty, or when, in general, it fails to be meted out in exact proportion to the merit or guilt in question.“

—  Jean Piaget

Fonte: The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932), Ch. 3 Cooperation and the Idea of Justice <!-- p. 197 -->
Contexto: There are in existence two distinct ideas of justice. We say that an award is unjust when it penalizes the innocent, rewards the guilty, or when, in general, it fails to be meted out in exact proportion to the merit or guilt in question. On the other hand, we say that a division is unjust when it favors some at the expense of others. In this second adaptation of the term, the idea of justice implies only the idea of equality. In the first acceptation of the term, the notion of justice is inseparable from that of the reward and punishment, and is defined by the correlation between acts and their retribution.

„When the child imitates the rules practiced by his older companions he feels that he is submitting to an unalterable law“

—  Jean Piaget

Fonte: The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932), Ch. 1 : The Rules of the Game <!-- p. 62 -->
Contexto: When the child imitates the rules practiced by his older companions he feels that he is submitting to an unalterable law, due, therefore, to his parents themselves. Thus the pressure exercised by older on younger children is assimilated here, as so often, to adult pressure. This action of the older children is still constraint, for cooperation can only arise between equals. Nor does the submission of the younger children to the rules of the older ones lead to any sort of cooperation in action; it simply produces a sort of mysticism, a diffused feeling of collective participation, which, as in the case of many mystics, fits in perfectly well with egocentrism. For we shall see eventually that cooperation between equals not only brings about a gradual change in the child's practical attitude, but that it also does away with the mystical feeling towards authority.

„This, of course, does not prevent some rules from containing more than others an element of rationality, thus corresponding to the deepest fundamental constants of human nature.“

—  Jean Piaget

Fonte: The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932), Ch. 2 : Adult Constraint and Moral Realism <!-- p. 183 -->
Contexto: As Bovet has demonstrated in the field of morals, rules do not appear in the mind of the child as innate facts, but as facts that are transmitted to him by his seniors, and to which from his tenderest years he has to conform by means of a sui generis form of adaptation. This, of course, does not prevent some rules from containing more than others an element of rationality, thus corresponding to the deepest fundamental constants of human nature. But whether they be rational or simply a matter of usage and consensus of opinion, rules imposed on the childish mind by adult constraint do begin by presenting a more or less uniform character of exteriority and sheer authority. So that instead of passing smoothly from an early individualism (the "social" element of the first months is only biologically social, so to speak, inside the individual, and therefore individualistic) to a state of progressive cooperation, the child is from his first year onwards in the grip of coercive education which goes straight on and ends by producing what Claprède has so happily called a veritable "short circuit."

Aniversários de hoje
Paulo Freire photo
Paulo Freire71
filósofo e educador brasileiro 1921 - 1997
Italo Calvino photo
Italo Calvino58
1923 - 1985
Henry Brougham photo
Henry Brougham2
1778 - 1868
Outros 44 aniversários hoje