Frases de Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget photo
7   53

Jean Piaget

Data de nascimento: 9. Agosto 1896
Data de falecimento: 16. Setembro 1980

Publicidade

Sir Jean William Fritz Piaget foi um epistemólogo suíço, considerado um dos mais importantes pensadores do século XX. Defendeu uma abordagem interdisciplinar para a investigação epistemológica e fundou a Epistemologia Genética, teoria do conhecimento com base no estudo da gênese psicológica do pensamento humano.

Estudou inicialmente biologia na Universidade de Neuchâtel onde concluiu seu doutorado, e posteriormente se dedicou à área de Psicologia, Epistemologia e Educação. Foi professor de psicologia na Universidade de Genebra de 1929 a 1954, e tornou-se mundialmente reconhecido pela sua revolução epistemológica. Durante sua vida Piaget escreveu mais de cinqüenta livros e diversas centenas de artigos.

Piaget também teve um considerável impacto no campo da ciência da computação. Seymour Papert usou o trabalho de Piaget como fundamentação ao desenvolver a linguagem de programação Logo. Alan Kay usou as teorias de Piaget como base para o sistema conceitual de programação Dynabook, que foi inicialmente discutido em Xerox PARC. Estas discussões levaram ao desenvolvimento do protótipo Alto, que explorou pela primeira vez os elementos do GUI, ou Interface Gráfica do Usuário, e influenciou a criação de interfaces de usuário a partir dos anos 1980.

Em 1919, viaja para Paris e começa a trabalhar no Instituto Jean-Jacques Rousseau, quando publica os primeiros artigos sobre a criança. O nascimento dos filhos amplia o convívio diário com a "criança pequena" e possibilita o registro de observações que geram novas hipóteses sobre as origens da cognição humana. Durante sua estadia em Paris, Piaget conhece Théodore Simon, que o convida a padronizar os "testes de raciocínio de Cyril Burt, desenvolvidos nos Estados Unidos, experiência que lhe permitiu delimitar um campo de estudos empíricos: o pensamento infantil e o raciocínio lógico. Como resultado desse trabalho, Piaget é convidado para o cargo de coordenador de pesquisas do Instituto, função que inclui a "Maison des Petits" .

Citações Jean Piaget

„O principal objetivo da educação é criar pessoas capazes de fazer coisas novas e não simplesmente repetir o que as outras gerações fizeram.“

—  Jean Piaget
citado em "Correntes pedagógicas: aproximações com a teologia‎" - Página 96, de Danilo Romeu Streck - Vozes, 1994, ISBN 8532612164, 9788532612168 - 136 páginas

Publicidade

„As estruturas operatórias da inteligência não são inatas.“

—  Jean Piaget
veja a respeito em "Revista de divulgação cultural", Edições 21-25; Edições 27-28‎ - Página 9, FURB, 1984

„Mixture of assimilation to earlier schemas and adaptation to the actual conditions of the situation is what defines motor intelligence.“

—  Jean Piaget
The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932), Context: Mixture of assimilation to earlier schemas and adaptation to the actual conditions of the situation is what defines motor intelligence. But — and this is where rules come into existence — as soon as a balance is established between adaptation and assimilation, the course of conduct adopted becomes crystallized and ritualized. New schemas are even established which the child looks for and retains with care, as though they were obligatory or charged with efficacy. Ch. 1 : The Rules of the Game, § 9 : Conclusions : Motor Rules and the Two Kinds of Respect

Help us translate English quotes

Discover interesting quotes and translate them.

Start translating

„This, of course, does not prevent some rules from containing more than others an element of rationality, thus corresponding to the deepest fundamental constants of human nature.“

—  Jean Piaget
The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932), Context: As Bovet has demonstrated in the field of morals, rules do not appear in the mind of the child as innate facts, but as facts that are transmitted to him by his seniors, and to which from his tenderest years he has to conform by means of a sui generis form of adaptation. This, of course, does not prevent some rules from containing more than others an element of rationality, thus corresponding to the deepest fundamental constants of human nature. But whether they be rational or simply a matter of usage and consensus of opinion, rules imposed on the childish mind by adult constraint do begin by presenting a more or less uniform character of exteriority and sheer authority. So that instead of passing smoothly from an early individualism (the "social" element of the first months is only biologically social, so to speak, inside the individual, and therefore individualistic) to a state of progressive cooperation, the child is from his first year onwards in the grip of coercive education which goes straight on and ends by producing what Claprède has so happily called a veritable "short circuit." Ch. 2 : Adult Constraint and Moral Realism <!-- p. 183 -->

„Babies are, then, obviously narcissistic, but not in the way adults are, not even Spinoza's God, and I am a little afraid that Freud sometimes forgets that the narcissistic baby has no sense of self.“

—  Jean Piaget
Context: There are no really solipsistic philosophers, and those who think they are deceive themselves. The true solipsist feels at one with the universe, and so very identical to it that he does not even feel the need for two terms. The true solipsist projects all his states of mind onto things. The true solipsist is entirely alone in the world, that is, he has no notion of anything exterior to himself. In other words the true solipsist has no idea of self. There is no self: there is the world. It is in this sense it is reasonable to call a baby a solipsist: the feelings and desires of a baby know no limits since they are a part of everything he sees, touches, and perceives. Babies are, then, obviously narcissistic, but not in the way adults are, not even Spinoza's God, and I am a little afraid that Freud sometimes forgets that the narcissistic baby has no sense of self. Given this definition of solipsism, egocentrism in children clearly appears to be a simple continuation of solipsism in infants.. Egocentrism, as we have seen, is not an intentional or even a conscious process. A child has no idea that he is egocentric. He believes everybody thinks the way he does, and this false universality is due simply to an absence of the sense of limits on his individuality. In this light, egocentrism and solipsism are quite comparable: both stem from the absence or the weakness of the sense of self. The First Year of Life of the Child (1927), "The Egocentrism of the Child and the Solipsism of the Baby", as translated by Howard E. Gruber and J. Jacques Vonèche

„A second prefatory question faces us: that of society and the individual.“

—  Jean Piaget
The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932), Context: A second prefatory question faces us: that of society and the individual. We have sought to contrast the child and the civilized adult on the ground of their respective social attitudes. The baby (at the stage of motor intelligence) is asocial, the egocentric child is subject to external constraint but has little capacity for cooperation, the civilized adult of to-day presents the essential character of cooperation between differentiated personalities who regard each other as equals. There are therefore three types of behavior: motor behavior, egocentric behavior (with external constraint), and cooperation. And to these three types of social behavior there correspond three types of rules: motor rules, rules due to unilateral respect, and rules due to mutual respect. But here again, one must beware of laying down the law: for things are motor, individual and social all at once. As we shall have occasion to show, rules of cooperation are in some respects the outcome of the rules of coercion and of the motor rules. On the other hand, coercion is applied during the first days of an infant's life, and the earliest social relations contain the germs of cooperation. Here again, it is not so much a question of these successive features themselves as of the proportions in which they are present. Moreover, the way in which conscious realization and the time-lag from one level to another come into play is a further bar to our arranging these phenomena in a strict sequence, as though they made a single appearance and then disappeared from the scene once and for all. Ch. 1 : The Rules of the Game, § 8 : Conclusions : Motor Rules and the Two Kinds of Respect <!-- p. 86 -->

„The motor rule is therefore the result of a feeling of repetition which arises out of the ritualization of schemas of motor adaptation.“

—  Jean Piaget
The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932), Context: The motor rule. In its beginnings the motor rule merges into habit. During the first few months of an infant's life, its manner of taking the breast, of laying its head on the pillow, etc., becomes crystallized into imperative habits. This is why education must begin in the cradle. To accustom the infant to get out of its own difficulties or to calm it by rocking it may be to lay the foundations of a good or of a bad disposition. But not every habit will give rise to the knowledge of a rule. The habit must first be frustrated, and the ensuing conflict must lead to an active search for the habitual. Above all, the particular succession must be perceived as regular, i. e. there must be judgment or consciousness of regularity (Regelbewusstseiri). The motor rule is therefore the result of a feeling of repetition which arises out of the ritualization of schemas of motor adaptation. <!-- The primitive rules of the game of marbles (throwing the marbles, heaping them, burying them, etc.) which we observed towards the age of 2-3 are nothing else. The behavior in question starts from a desire for a form of exercise which takes account of the particular object that is being handled. The child begins by incorporating the marbles into one or other of the schemas of assimilation already known to him, such as making a nest, hiding under earth, etc. Then he adapts these schemas to the nature of the object by preventing the marbles from rolling away by putting them in a hole, by throwing them, etc. Ch. 1 : The Rules of the Game, § 8 : Conclusions : Motor Rules and the Two Kinds of Respect

„In other words the true solipsist has no idea of self. There is no self: there is the world.“

—  Jean Piaget
Context: There are no really solipsistic philosophers, and those who think they are deceive themselves. The true solipsist feels at one with the universe, and so very identical to it that he does not even feel the need for two terms. The true solipsist projects all his states of mind onto things. The true solipsist is entirely alone in the world, that is, he has no notion of anything exterior to himself. In other words the true solipsist has no idea of self. There is no self: there is the world. It is in this sense it is reasonable to call a baby a solipsist: the feelings and desires of a baby know no limits since they are a part of everything he sees, touches, and perceives. Babies are, then, obviously narcissistic, but not in the way adults are, not even Spinoza's God, and I am a little afraid that Freud sometimes forgets that the narcissistic baby has no sense of self. Given this definition of solipsism, egocentrism in children clearly appears to be a simple continuation of solipsism in infants.. Egocentrism, as we have seen, is not an intentional or even a conscious process. A child has no idea that he is egocentric. He believes everybody thinks the way he does, and this false universality is due simply to an absence of the sense of limits on his individuality. In this light, egocentrism and solipsism are quite comparable: both stem from the absence or the weakness of the sense of self. The First Year of Life of the Child (1927), "The Egocentrism of the Child and the Solipsism of the Baby", as translated by Howard E. Gruber and J. Jacques Vonèche

„A strong personality can maintain itself without the help of this particular weapon.“

—  Jean Piaget
The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932), Context: Every observer has noted that the younger the child, the less sense he has of his own ego. From the intellectual point of view, he does not distinguish between external and internal, subjective and objective. From the point of view of action, he yields to every suggestion, and if he does oppose to other people's wills — a certain negativism which has been called "the spirit of contradiction" — this only points to his real defenselessness against his surroundings. A strong personality can maintain itself without the help of this particular weapon. The adult and the older child have complete power over him. They impose their opinions and their wishes, and the child accepts them without knowing that he does so. Only — and this is the other side of the picture — as the child does not dissociate his ego from the environment, whether physical or social, he mixes into all his thoughts and all his actions, ideas and practices that are due to the intervention of his ego and which, just because he fails to recognize them as subjective, exercise a check upon his complete socialization. From the intellectual point of view, he mingles his own fantasies with accepted opinions, whence arise pseudo lies (or sincere lies), syncretism, and all the features of child thought. From the point of view of action, he interprets in his own fashion the examples he has adopted, whence the egocentric form of play we were examining above. The only way of avoiding these individual refractions would lie in true cooperation, such that both child and senior would each make allowance for his own individuality and for the realities that were held in common. Ch. 1 : The Rules of the Game, § 8 : Conclusions : Motor Rules and the Two Kinds of Respect

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“