Frases de Jean-François Millet

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Jean-François Millet

Data de nascimento: 4. Outubro 1814
Data de falecimento: 20. Janeiro 1875

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Jean-François Millet foi um pintor realista e um dos fundadores da Escola de Barbizon na França rural. É conhecido como precursor do realismo, pelas suas representações de trabalhadores rurais.

Junto com Courbet, Millet foi um dos principais representantes do realismo europeu surgido em meados do século XIX. Sua obra foi uma resposta à estética romântica, de gostos um tanto orientais e exóticos, e deu forma à realidade circundante, sobretudo a das classes trabalhadoras.

Millet era filho de um latifundiário, nascido na vila de Gruchy, em La Hague, na Normandia. Recebeu suas primeiras aulas de pintura em 1834, no estúdio dos pintores Paul Dumouchel, Jérome Langlois e Chevreville, em Cherbourg. Mudou-se depois para Paris, em 1838, onde continuou sob a orientação do pintor Paul Delaroche, dedicando-se a estudar os grandes mestres do Louvre, principalmente Giorgione, Michelangelo e Poussin. O início de sua carreira como artista foi muito difícil. Precisava ganhar a vida pintando quadros a pastel no estilo rococó.

Após 1840, decide abandonar o Academismo e fica sob a influência de Daumier. Nessa época consegue se apresentar pela primeira vez no Salão de Paris e conhece os pintores Théodore Rousseau e Constant Troyon, que o influenciaram a mudar-se para o campo. Ele se estabeleceu na aldeia de Barbizon. Lá viveria toda a sua vida, longe da cidade que detestava e pintando seus quadros de paisagens e cenas da vida rural, que tantas críticas despertaram entre os conservadores franceses. A revolução popular de 1848 elevou Millet e a Escola de Barbizon a um lugar proeminente na arte francesa. Em 1849 abdica definitivamente de Escola de Barbizon para se dedicar por inteiro às suas representações de trabalhadores rurais das mais diversas áreas.

Suas obras sobre camponeses foram consideradas sentimentais para alguns, exageradamente piegas para outros, mas a verdade é que as obras de Millet em nenhum momento suscitaram indiferença. Na tepidez de seus ocres e marrons, no lirismo de sua luz, na magnificência e dignidade de suas figuras humanas, o pintor manifestava a integração do homem com a natureza. Alguns temas eram tratados talvez com um pouco mais de sentimentalismo do que outros. No entanto, é nos pequenos gestos que se pode descobrir a capacidade de observação deste grande pintor. Exemplo disso é sua famosa tela Angelus , hoje no Museu d´Orsay.

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Citações Jean-François Millet

„[Theophile] Gautier's article is very good. I begin to feel a little more contented. His remarks about my thick colours are also very just. The critics who see and judge my pictures are not forced to know that in painting them I am not guided by a definite intention, although I do my utmost to try and attain the aim which I have in sight, independently of methods. People are not even obliged to know why it is that I work in this way, with all its faults.“

— Jean-François Millet
Quote of Millet in his letter of 23 March 1851; as quoted by Julia Cartwright in Jean Francois Millet, his Life and Letters, Swan Sonnenschein en Co, Lim. London / The Macmillian Company, New York; second edition, September 1902, p. 112 the most famous painting of Millet 'The Sower', reviewed in an article then by Gautier, was exhibited for the first time in 'The Salon' of Paris, at the End of 1850

„He [Alfred de Musset] puts you into a fever, it is true; but he can do nothing more for you. He has undoubted charms, but his taste is capricious and poisoned. All he can do is to disenchant and corrupt you, and at the end leave you in despair. The fever passes, and you are left without strength - like a convalescent who is in need of fresh air, of the sunshine, and of the stars.“

— Jean-François Millet
a remark to his friend Louis Marolle in Paris c. 1839; as quoted by Julia Cartwright in Jean Francois Millet, his Life and Letters [https://archive.org/stream/jeanfrancoismill00cart#page/n5/mode/2up], Swan Sonnenschein en Co, Lim. London / The Macmillian Company, New York; second edition, September 1902, p. 60 Millet had little sympathy with the French poet Alfred de Musset and criticized the tendencies of his poetry severely.

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„I remember being awakened one morning by voices in the room where I slept. There was a whizzing sound which made itself heard between the voices now and then. It was the sound of spinning-wheels, and the voices were those of women spinning and carding wool. The dust of the room danced in a ray of sunshine which shone through the high narrow window that lighted the room..“

— Jean-François Millet
Quote, c. 1870; as cited by Julia Cartwright in Jean Francois Millet, his Life and Letters, Swan Sonnenschein en Co, Lim. London / The Macmillian Company, New York; second edition, September 1902, p. 12 taken from Millet's youth-memories, he wrote down on request of his friend and later biographer Alfred Sensier, https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Sensier]

„What do I care? 'I don't come here [studying with the Paris' artist & teacher Paul Delaroche [https://fr. wikipedia. org/wiki/Paul_Delaroche] to please anybody. I come because there are antiques and models to teach me, that is all. Do I object to your figures, made of butter and honey [to Alfred Boisseau]?“

— Jean-François Millet
Quote of Millet, c. 1839; as cited by biographer , in Jean-Francois Millet – Peasant and Painter, transl. Helena de Kay; publ. Macmillan and Co., London, 1881, p. 54 Boisseau criticized Millet on making his own plan; he was one of the master's pets of art-teacher Paul Delaroche in Paris, that time

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„My dear Rousseau, I do not know if the two sketches which I enclose will be of any use to you. I merely wish to show you where I would place the figures in your picture, that is all. You know better than I do what is best, and what you wish to do. These last few days we have had some effects of hoarfrost, which I am not going to try and describe, feeling how useless this would be! I will content myself with saying that God alone can ever have seen such marvelously fairy-like scenes. I only wish that you could have been here to see them. Have you finished your pictures? Because you have only a month more in which to finish your [https://commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/File:Th%C3%A9odore_Rousseau_-_Edge_of_the_Forest_at_Fontainebleau, _Setting_Sun_-_WGA20162. jpg 'Forest'], and it is very important indeed that this picture should be in the Salon. In fact, it must absolutely be there... Good-bye, my dear Rousseau, and accept a whole pile of cordial good wishes.“

— Jean-François Millet
Quote in Millet's letter to Théodore Rousseau, from Barbizon early Spring 1853; as quoted in Jean Francois Millet, his Life and Letters, Julia Cartwright; Swan Sonnenschein en Co, Lim. London / The Macmillian Company, New York; second edition, September 1902, p. 137 Millet wrote Rousseau who was staying in Paris, and urged him to complete his 'Forest' painting in time for the Paris' Salon, held in the Summer of 1853. Millet sent him included two sketches on paper as pictorial help and advice for the composition of Rousseau's painting.

„I work like a gang of slaves; the day seems five months long. My wish to make a winter landscape has become a fixed idea. I want to do a sheep picture and have all sorts of projects in my head. If you could see how beautiful the forest is! I rush there at the end of the day, after my work, and I come back every time crushed. It is so calm, such a terrible grandeur, that I find myself really frightened. I don't know what those fellows, the trees, are saying to each other.... we don't know their language, that is all; but I am quite sure of this - they do not make puns!.... Send [me] 3 burnt sienna, 2 raw ditto, 3 Naples's yellow, 1 burnt Italian earth, 2 yellow ocher, 2 burnt umber, 1 bottle of raw oil.“

— Jean-François Millet
Quote of Millet, in his letter from Barbizon, c. 1850 to in Paris; as cited by Arthur Hoeber in [https://ia902205.us.archive.org/30/items/barbizonpainters00hoeb/barbizonpainters00hoeb.pdf The Barbizon Painters – being the story of the Men of thirty] – associate of the National Academy of Design; publishers, Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York 1915, p. 38 In 1850 Millet entered into an arrangement with Alfred Sensier, who provided him with materials and money in return for drawings and paintings (source: Murphy, Alexandra R. Jean-François Millet. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1984, p. xix), see: Wikipedia, Millet

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„They [the Paris art-critics] wish to force me into their drawing-room art, to break my spirit. No, no! I was born as a peasant and a peasant I will die. I say what I feel. I paint things as I see them, and I will hold my ground without retreating one sabot; if necessary, I will fight for honour.“

— Jean-François Millet
Quote from his letter, March 1859; as quoted by Arthur Hoeber in The Barbizon Painters – being the story of the Men of thirty – associate of the National Academy of Design; publishers, Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York 1915, p. 53 his now famous picture [https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Death-and-the-woodcutter-jean-francois-millet3.jpg 'Death and the Woodcutter'], had been rejected at the Salon, and the important and conservative journal 'Gazette des Beaux Arts' was most indignant. The well known Hedouin engraved this work.

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