Frases de Jawaharlal Nehru

Jawaharlal Nehru photo
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Jawaharlal Nehru

Data de nascimento: 14. Novembro 1889
Data de falecimento: 27. Maio 1964

Jawaharlal Nehru , também conhecido como Pandit Nehru ou Pandita Nehru, foi um estadista indiano, que foi o primeiro primeiro-ministro da Índia, desde 1947 até 1964. Líder da ala socialista no congresso nacional indiano durante e após o esforço da Índia para a independência do império britânico, tornou-se no primeiro-ministro da Índia na independência, de 15 de agosto de 1947 até sua morte.

Figura líder do movimento de independência indiano, Nehru foi eleito pelo Partido do Congresso para assumir o posto inaugural de primeiro-ministro da Índia independente, e reeleito quando Partido do Congresso ganhou a primeira eleição geral da Índia em 1952. Como um dos fundadores do Movimento Não-Alinhado, foi também uma figura importante na política internacional do pós-guerra.

Filho de um rico advogado e político indiano, Motilal Nehru, Nehru tornou-se um líder da ala esquerdista do Congresso Nacional Indiano, quando ainda bastante jovem. Ascendendo até tornar-se presidente do Congresso, sob a orientação de Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru foi um líder carismático e radical, defendendo a independência completa em relação ao Império Britânico. Na longa luta pela independência da Índia, em que foi uma peça chave, Nehru foi finalmente reconhecido como herdeiro político de Gandhi. Ao longo de sua vida, Nehru foi também um defensor do socialismo fabiano e do setor público como o meio pelo qual os desafios de longa data do desenvolvimento econômico poderiam ser abordados pelas nações mais pobres. Wikipedia

Photo: AFP staff, AFP / Public domain

Obras

Citações Jawaharlal Nehru

„A arte de um povo é um reflexo autêntico de sua mentalidade.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru, livro Glimpses of World History

The art of a people is a true mirror of their minds
Glimpses of World History: Being Further Letters to His Daughter, Written in Prison, and Containing a Rambling Account of History for Young People - Página 83, Jawaharlal Nehru - John Day Company, 1942, 993 páginas

„Nomear inimigos potenciais é fazer inimigos reais.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru

Atribuídas

Esta tradução está aguardando revisão. Está correcto?

„History is almost always written by the victors and conquerors and gives their view.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru, livro The Discovery of India

The Discovery of India (1946), pp. 287-8.

„I want to go rapidly towards my objective. But fundamentally even the results of action do not worry me so much. Action itself, so long as I am convinced that it is right action, gives me satisfaction.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru

Statement of 1951, in Selected Works of Jawaharlal Nehru Vol. 5 (1987), p. 321
Contexto: I want to go rapidly towards my objective. But fundamentally even the results of action do not worry me so much. Action itself, so long as I am convinced that it is right action, gives me satisfaction. In my general outlook on life I am a socialist and it is a socialist order that I should like to see established in India and the world.

„We live in a wonderful world that is full of beauty, charm and adventure. There is no end to the adventures that we can have if only we seek them with our eyes open.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru

As quoted in Building A Life Of Value : Timeless Wisdom to Inspire and Empower Us (2005) by Jason A. Merchey, p. 74

„That is more than morality; it's sense.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru

Interview by James Cameron in Picture Post (28 October 1950)
Contexto: If in the modern world wars have unfortunately to be fought (and they do, it seems) then they must be stopped at the first possible moment, otherwise they corrupt us, they create new problems and make our future even more uncertain. That is more than morality; it's sense.

„There is perhaps nothing so bad and so dangerous in life as fear.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru

Speech at Columbia University (1949); published in Speeches 1949 - 1953 p. 402; as quoted in Sources of Indian Tradition (1988) by Stephen Hay, p. 350
Contexto: In times of crisis it is not unnatural for those who are involved in it deeply to regard calm objectivity in others as irrational, short-sighted, negative, unreal or even unmanly. But I should like to make it clear that the policy India has sought to pursue is not a negative and neutral policy. It is a positive and vital policy that flows from our struggle for freedom and from the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. Peace is not only an absolute necessity for us in India in order to progress and develop but also of paramount importance to the world. How can that peace be preserved? Not by surrendering to aggression, not by compromising with evil or injustice but also not by the talking and preparing for war! Aggression has to be met, for it endangers peace. At the same time, the lesson of the past two wars has to be remembered and it seems to me astonishing that, in spite of that lesson, we go the same way. The very processes of marshaling the world into two hostile camps precipitates the conflict that it had sought to avoid. It produces a sense of terrible fear and that fear darkens men's minds and leads them to wrong courses. There is perhaps nothing so bad and so dangerous in life as fear. As a great President of the United States said, there is nothing really to fear except fear itself.

„It was the essential freedom from dogma and the scientific outlook of Marxism that appealed to me.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru

Autobiography (1936; 1949; 1958)
Contexto: Russia apart, the theory and philosophy of Marxism lightened up many a dark corner of my mind. History came to have a new meaning for me. The Marxist interpretation threw a flood of light on it... It was the essential freedom from dogma and the scientific outlook of Marxism that appealed to me. p. 362-363

„Many a Congressman was a communalist under his national cloak.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru

Autobiography (1936; 1949; 1958)
Contexto: Many a Congressman was a communalist under his national cloak. But the Congress leadership stood firm and, on the whole, refused to side with either communal party, or rather with any communal group. Long ago, right at the commencement of non-co-operation or even earlier, Gandhiji had laid down his formula for solving the communal problem. According to him, it could only be solved by goodwill and the generosity of the majority group, and so he was prepared to agree to everything that the Muslims might demand. He wanted to win them over, not to bargain with them. With foresight and a true sense of values he grasped at the reality that was worthwhile; but others who thought they knew the market price of everything, and were ignorant of the true value of anything, stuck to the methods of the market-place. They saw the cost of purchase with painful clearness, but they had no appreciation of the worth of the article they might have bought. <!-- p. 136

„A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru

A Tryst With Destiny (1947)
Fonte: Quicktime excerpt http://www.harappa.com/wall/nehru.html and in: Rediscovery of India, The: A New Subcontinent http://books.google.com/books?id=XRpFol4AnO0C&pg=PA191, Orient Blackswan, 1 January 1999, p. 191
Excerpts from his speech delivered on the eve of declaration of Independence, on 14 August 1947, at the midnight hour declaring Independence of India on 15 August 1947.
Contexto: Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment, we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity.

„We must constantly remind ourselves that whatever our religion or creed, we are all one people.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru

Radio address to the Defence Services (1 December 1947)
Contexto: We must constantly remind ourselves that whatever our religion or creed, we are all one people. I regret that many recent disturbances have given us a bad name. Many have acquiesced to the prevailing spirit. This is not citizenship. Citizenship consists in the service of the country. We must prevail on the evil-doers to stop their activities. If you, men of the Navy, the Army and the Air Force, serve your countrymen without distinction of class and religion, you will bring honour to yourselves and to your country.

„The discovery of India — what have I discovered?“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru, livro The Discovery of India

The Discovery of India (1946)
Contexto: The discovery of India — what have I discovered? It was presumptuous of me to imagine that I could unveil her and find out what she is today and what she was in the long past. Today she is four hundred million separate individual men and women, each differing from the other, each living in a private universe of thought and feeling. If this is so in the present, how much more so to grasp that multitudinous past of innumerable successions of human beings. Yet something has bound them together and binds them still. India is a geographical and economic entity, a cultural unity amidst diversity, a bundle of contradictions held together by strong but invisible threads. Overwhelmed again and again her spirit was never conquered, and today when she appears to be a plaything of a proud conqueror, she remains unsubdued and unconquered. About her there is the elusive quality of a legend of long ago; some enchantment seems to have held her mind. She is a myth and an idea, a dream and a vision, and yet very real and present and pervasive.

„The touchstone, therefore, should be how far any political or social theory enables the individual to rise above his petty self and thus think in terms of the good of all. The law of life should not be competition or acquisitiveness but cooperation, the good of each contributing to the good of all.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru

As quoted in World Marxist Review : Problems of Peace and Socialism (1958), p. 40
Contexto: Democracy and socialism are means to an end, not the end itself. We talk of the good of society. Is this something apart from, and transcending, the good of the individuals composing it? If the individual is ignored and sacrificed for what is considered the good of the society, is that the right objective to have?
It was agreed that the individual should not be sacrificed and indeed that real social progress will come only when opportunity is given to the individual to develop, provided "the individual" is not a selected group but comprises the whole community. The touchstone, therefore, should be how far any political or social theory enables the individual to rise above his petty self and thus think in terms of the good of all. The law of life should not be competition or acquisitiveness but cooperation, the good of each contributing to the good of all.

„A leader or a man of action in a crisis almost always acts subconsciously and then thinks of the reasons for his action.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru

On Mahatma Gandhi<!-- p. 506 (1949) / p. 310 (1961) -->
Autobiography (1936; 1949; 1958)
Contexto: I knew that Gandhiji usually acts on instinct (I prefer to call it that than the "inner voice" or an answer to prayer) and very often that instinct is right. He has repeatedly shown what a wonderful knack he has of sensing the mass mind and of acting at the psychological moment. The reasons which he afterward adduces to justify his action are usually afterthoughts and seldom carry one very far. A leader or a man of action in a crisis almost always acts subconsciously and then thinks of the reasons for his action.

„If you let victory become the end in itself then you've gone astray and forgotten what you were originally fighting about.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru

Interview by James Cameron, in Picture Post (28 October 1950)
Contexto: Wars are fought to gain a certain objective. War itself is not the objective; victory is not the objective; you fight to remove the obstruction that comes in the way of your objective. If you let victory become the end in itself then you've gone astray and forgotten what you were originally fighting about.

„In times of crisis it is not unnatural for those who are involved in it deeply to regard calm objectivity in others as irrational, short-sighted, negative, unreal or even unmanly.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru

Speech at Columbia University (1949); published in Speeches 1949 - 1953 p. 402; as quoted in Sources of Indian Tradition (1988) by Stephen Hay, p. 350
Contexto: In times of crisis it is not unnatural for those who are involved in it deeply to regard calm objectivity in others as irrational, short-sighted, negative, unreal or even unmanly. But I should like to make it clear that the policy India has sought to pursue is not a negative and neutral policy. It is a positive and vital policy that flows from our struggle for freedom and from the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. Peace is not only an absolute necessity for us in India in order to progress and develop but also of paramount importance to the world. How can that peace be preserved? Not by surrendering to aggression, not by compromising with evil or injustice but also not by the talking and preparing for war! Aggression has to be met, for it endangers peace. At the same time, the lesson of the past two wars has to be remembered and it seems to me astonishing that, in spite of that lesson, we go the same way. The very processes of marshaling the world into two hostile camps precipitates the conflict that it had sought to avoid. It produces a sense of terrible fear and that fear darkens men's minds and leads them to wrong courses. There is perhaps nothing so bad and so dangerous in life as fear. As a great President of the United States said, there is nothing really to fear except fear itself.

„I turned inevitably with goodwill towards communism, for, whatever its faults, it was at least not hypocritical and not imperialistic.“

—  Jawaharlal Nehru

Autobiography (1936; 1949; 1958)
Contexto: I turned inevitably with goodwill towards communism, for, whatever its faults, it was at least not hypocritical and not imperialistic. It was not a doctrinal adherence, as I did not know much about the fine points of Communism, my acquaintance being limited at the time to its broad features. There attracted me, as also the tremendous changes taking place in Russia. But Communists often irritated me by their dictatorial ways, their aggressive and rather vulgar methods, their habit of denouncing everybody who did not agree with them. This reaction was no doubt due, as they would say, to my own bourgeois education and up-bringing. <!-- p. 163

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