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Jacques Bertin

Data de nascimento: 27. Julho 1918
Data de falecimento: 3. Maio 2010

Jacques Bertin é um cartógrafo e teórico francês, conhecido por seu livro Semiologie Graphique , editado em 1967. Esse trabalho monumental, baseado em sua experiência como cartógrafo, representa a primeira e mais abrangente tentativa de oferecer uma fundação teórica para a Visualização de Informação.

Profissionais e teóricos do design de informação e infografia consideram Bertin um dos teóricos pioneiros mais importantes do design de informação.

Segundo Bertin “a representação gráfica faz parte do sistema de signos que o homem constrói para melhor reter, compreender e comunicar as observações que lhe são necessárias”.

Bertin propôs que a linguagem gráfica poderia ser:

Monossêmica - significado único, como o da linguagem matemática e o da representação gráfica mais objetiva .

Polissêmica - significados múltiplos, como os da linguagem figurativa.

Pansemica - infinitos significados, como na pintura abstrata.

Citações Jacques Bertin

„[Overall level questions involved an] understanding of the deep structure of the data being presented in their totality, usually comparing trends and seeing groupings.“

—  Jacques Bertin

Fonte: Semiology of graphics (1967/83), p. 16; as cited in: Stacy Kathryn Keller (2008) Levels of Line Graph Question Interpretation.... p. 6

„The author has the reputation of being against color. I am indeed against color when it masks incompetence; when it allows the superimposition of characteristics to the point of absurdity; when people believe it capable of representing ordered data.“

—  Jacques Bertin

Fonte: Graphics and graphic information processing (1981), p. 222; partly cited in: Laura R. Novick and Sean M. Hurley (2001) " To Matrix, Network, or Hierarchy: That Is the Question http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/faculty/Markman/PSY394/NovHur.pdf" in: Cognitive Psychology 42, 158–216 (2001)

„[The special properties of visual perception of data]… is the visual means of resolving logical problems.“

—  Jacques Bertin

Fonte: Graphics and graphic information processing (1981), p. 16 as cited in: Riccardo Mazza (2004) Introduction to Information Visualisation http://www.dti.supsi.ch/~mazza/infovis_introduction.pdf

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„The use of computers shouldn’t ignore the objectives of graphics, that are:“

—  Jacques Bertin

Treating data to get information.
Communicating, when necessary, the information obtained.
Computers are able to multiply useless images without taking into account that, by definition, every graphic corresponds to a table. This table allows you to think about three basic questions that go from the particular to the general level. When this last one receives an answer, you have answers for all of them. Understanding means accessing the general level and discovering significant grouping (patterns). Consequently, the function of a graphic is answering the three following questions:
Which are the X,Y, Z components of the data table? (What it’s all about?)
What are the groups in X, in Y that Z builds? (What the information at the general level is?
What are the exceptions?
These questions can be applied to every kind of problem. They measure the usefulness of whatever construction or graphical invention allowing you to avoid useless graphics.
About the role of computers in Information Visualisation.

„If, in order to obtain a correct and complete answer to a given question, all other things being equal, one construction requires a shorter observation time than another construction, we can say that it is more efficient for this question.“

—  Jacques Bertin

Fonte: Semiology of graphics (1967/83), p. 139: Bertin’s definition of efficiency as cited in: Naomi B. Robbins (2009) Creating More Effective Graphs http://www.ssc.ca/ottawa/documents/SSO2009FallRobbins.pdf

„[Bertin's 'color' refers to] the repertoire of colored sensations which can be produced at equal value.“

—  Jacques Bertin

Fonte: Semiology of graphics (1967/83), p. 61, as cited in: Jörg von Engelhardt (2002). The Language of Graphics: : A Framework for the Analysis of Syntax and Meaning in Maps, Charts and Diagrams. p. 27

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