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Ha-Joon Chang

Data de nascimento: 7. Outubro 1963

Ha-Joon Chang é um economista institucional sul-coreano especializado em economia do desenvolvimento. Atualmente membro do Departamento de Política Econômica do Desenvolvimento na Universidade de Cambridge, Chang é autor de diversos livros de política amplamente discutidos, sendo o mais notável Chutando a Escada: A Estratégia do Desenvolvimento em Perspectiva Histórica . Em 2013 a revista Prospect listou Chang como um dos 20 Maiores Pensadores do Mundo.Ele já serviu como consultor ao Banco Mundial, ao Banco Asiático de Desenvolvimento, ao Banco Europeu de Investimento, também a Oxfam e várias agências das Nações Unidas. Ele é também membro do Centro de Pesquisa de Economia e Política de Washington, D.C. Em adição, Chang faz parte do conselho do Academics Stand Against Poverty .

Citações Ha-Joon Chang

„Unless we find a solution to the problem of interlocking patents, the patent system may actually impede the very innovation it was designed to encourage.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, livro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism

Fonte: Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Ch. 6, The tyranny of interlocking patents, p. 128
Contexto: The days are over when technology can be advanced in laboratories by individual scientists alone. Now you need an army of lawyers to negotiate the hazardous terrain of interlocking patents. Unless we find a solution to the problem of interlocking patents, the patent system may actually impede the very innovation it was designed to encourage.

„Are you still convinced that inflation is incompatible with economic success?“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, livro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism

Fonte: Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Ch. 7: 'Mission impossible?; Can financial prudence go too far?', There is inflation and there is inflation, p. 149
Contexto: Inflation is bad for growth—this has become one of the most widely accepted economic nostrums of our age. But see how you feel about it after digesting the following piece of information.
During the 1960s and the 1970s, Brazil's average inflation rate was 42% a year. Despite this, Brazil was one of the fastest growing economies in the world for those two decades—its per capita income grew at 4.5% a year during this period. In contrast, between 1996 and 2005, during which time Brazil embraced the neo-liberal orthodoxy, especially in relation to macroeconomic policy, its inflation rate averaged a much lower 7.1% a year. But during this period, per capita income in Brazil grew at only 1.3% a year.
If you are not entirely persuaded by the Brazilian case—understandable, given that hyperinflation went side by side with low growth in the 1980s and the early 1990s—how about this? During its 'miracle' years, when its economy was growing at 7% a year in per capita terms, Korea had inflation rates close to 20%-17.4% in the 1960s and 19.8% in the 1970s. These were rates higher than those found in several Latin American countries... Are you still convinced that inflation is incompatible with economic success?

„He is over-protected and needs to be exposed to competition, so that he can become a more productive person.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, livro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism

Fonte: Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Ch. 3: 'My six-year-old son should get a job; Is free trade always the answer?', p. 65
Contexto: I have a six-year-old son. His name is Jin-Gyu. He lives off me, yet he is quite capable of making a living. I pay for his lodging, food, education and health care. But millions of children of his age already have jobs. Daniel Defoe, in the 18th century, thought that children could earn a living from the age of four.
Moreover, working might do Jin-Gyu's character a world of good. Right now he lives in an economic bubble with no sense of the value of money. He has zero appreciation of the efforts his mother and I make on his behalf, subsidizing his idle existence and cocooning him from harsh reality. He is over-protected and needs to be exposed to competition, so that he can become a more productive person. Thinking about it, the more competition he is exposed to and the sooner this is done, the better it will be for his future development. It will whip him into a mentality that is ready for hard work. I should make him quit school and get a job. Perhaps I could move to a country where child labour is still tolerated, if not legal, to give him more choice in employment.

„Keynesianism for the rich countries and monetarism for the poor“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, livro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism

Fonte: Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Ch. 7, Keynesianism for the rich, monetarism for the poor, p. 158
Contexto: Gore Vidal, the American writer, once described the American economic system as 'free enterprise for the poor and socialism for the rich'. Macroeconomic policy on the global scale is a bit like that. It is Keynesianism for the rich countries and monetarism for the poor.

„Unlike what neo-liberals say, market and democracy clash at a fundamental level. Democracy runs on the principle of 'one man (one person), one vote'. The market runs on the principle of 'one dollar, one vote'.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, livro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism

Fonte: Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Ch. 8, Democracy and the free market, p. 172
Contexto: Unlike what neo-liberals say, market and democracy clash at a fundamental level. Democracy runs on the principle of 'one man (one person), one vote'. The market runs on the principle of 'one dollar, one vote'. Naturally, the former gives equal weight to each person, regardless of the money she/he has. The latter give greater weight to richer people. Therefore, democratic decisions usually subvert the logic of market.

„If they want to leave poverty behind, they have to defy the market“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, livro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism

Fonte: Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Ch. 9, Defying the market, p. 210
Contexto: Markets have a strong tendency to reinforce the status quo. The free market dictates that countries stick to what they are already good at. Stated bluntly, this means that poor countries are supposed to continue with their current engagement in low-productivity activities. But their engagement in those activities is exactly what makes them poor. If they want to leave poverty behind, they have to defy the market and do the more difficult things that bring them higher incomes—there are no two ways about it.

„Not all countries have succeeded through protection and subsidies, but few have done so without them.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, livro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism

Prologue, p. 17
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008)
Contexto: Britain and the US are not the homes of free trade; in fact, for a long time they were the most protectionist countries in the world. Not all countries have succeeded through protection and subsidies, but few have done so without them. For developing countries, free trade has a rarely been a matter of choice; it was often an imposition from outside, sometimes even through military power. Most of them did very poorly under free trade; they did much better when they used protection and subsidies. The best-performing economies have been those that opened up their economies selectively and gradually. Neo-liberal free-trade free-market policy claims to sacrifice equity for growth, but in fact it achieves neither; growth has slowed down in the past two and a half decades when markets were freed and borders opened.

„Trade is simply too important for economic development to be left to free trade economists.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, livro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism

Fonte: Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Ch. 3, More trade, fewer ideologies, p. 83
Contexto: The importance of international trade for economic development cannot be overemphasized. But free trade is not the best path to economic development. Trade helps economic development only when the country employs a mixture of protection and open trade, constantly adjusting it according to its changing needs and capabilities. Trade is simply too important for economic development to be left to free trade economists.

„Health warning: On no account drink only one ingredient – liable to lead to tunnel vision, arrogance and possibly brain death.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang

Fonte: Economics: The User's Guide (2014), Ch. 4: "Let a hundred flowers bloom: How to 'do' economics"
Contexto: ECONOMICS COCKTAILS. Ingredients: Austrian, Behaviouralist, Classical, Developmentalist, Institutionalist, Keynesian, Marxist, Neoclassical and Schumpeterian. [... ] Health warning: On no account drink only one ingredient – liable to lead to tunnel vision, arrogance and possibly brain death.

„Rich countries have 'kicked away the ladder' by forcing free-market, free-trade policies on poor countries.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, livro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism

Fonte: Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Ch. 2, Learning the right lessons from history, p. 61
Contexto: Rich countries have 'kicked away the ladder' by forcing free-market, free-trade policies on poor countries. Already established countries do not want more competitors emerging through the nationalistic policies they themselves successfully used in the past.

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„People 'over-produce' pollution because they are not paying for the costs of dealing with it.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, livro 23 Things They Don't Tell You About Capitalism

Fonte: 23 Things They Don't Tell You About Capitalism

„History is on the side of the regulators.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, livro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism

Fonte: Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Ch. 4: 'The Finn and the elephant; Should we regulate foreign investment?', ‘More dangerous than military power’, p. 96

„The foundation of economic development is the acquisition of more productive knowledge.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, livro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism

Fonte: Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008), Ch. 6, Harsh rules and developing countries, p. 142

„It's not just about the current economic environment. History shows that slashing budgets always leads to recession.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang

"Austerity has never worked" http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/jun/04/austerity-policy-eurozone-crisis, The Guardian, 4 June 2012.

„Being told by the IMF to go easy on austerity is like being told by the Spanish Inquisition to be more tolerant of heretics.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang

"Watch out, George Osborne: Smith, Marx and even the IMF are after you" http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/may/08/osborne-marx-imf-austerity-democracy, The Guardian, 8 May 2013.

„Countries are poor not because their people are lazy; their people are 'lazy' because they are poor.“

—  Ha-Joon Chang, livro Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism

Prologue, p. 18
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008)

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