Frases de Gustave de Molinari

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Gustave de Molinari

Data de nascimento: 3. Março 1819
Data de falecimento: 28. Janeiro 1912

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Gustave de Molinari foi um economista nascido no Reino Unido dos Países Baixos associado com economistas adeptos do laissez-faire tal como Frédéric Bastiat e Hippolyte Castille.

Durante todo sua vida, junto com outros economistas, Molinari defendeu a paz, livre comércio, liberdade de expressão, livre associação , todas liberdades negativas e opôs-se a escravidão, colonialismo, mercantilismo, protecionismo, imperialismo, nacionalismo, corporativismo, intervenção econômica, controle governamental das artes e educação e, em geral, tudo o que considerava ser restritivo da liberdade. Vivendo em Paris nos anos de 1840, entrou para a Free Trade League , animado por Frederic Bastiat. Em seu leito de morte em 1850 Bastiat descreveu Molinari como o continuador de seu trabalho.

Em 1849, imediatamente após a revolução do ano anterior, Molinari publicou dois trabalhos: um ensaio, The Production of Security , e o livro, Les Soirées de la Rue Saint-Lazare, descrevendo como um livre mercado de justiça e proteção poderia vantajosamente substituir o estado. Em Les Soirées ele diz:

No prefácio da tradução para o inglês Murray Rothbard chamou - Da Produção de Segurança - de a primeira apresentação na história humana do que é agora chamado de anarco-capitalismo, apesar de admitir que Molinari não usou a terminologia, e que provavelmente teria recusado o termo. O economista austríaco Hans-Hermann Hoppe disse que o artigo de 1849 - Da Produção da Segurança - é provavelmente a mais importante contribuição a moderna teoria do anarco-capitalismo.

Nos anos de 1850 Molinari fugiu para a Bélgica para escapar das ameaças do imperador Napoleão III. Ele retornou a Paris nos anos de 1860 para trabalhar no influente jornal, Le Journal des Debats, que editou de 1871 a 1876. Molinari ainda editou Journal des Économistes, a publicação da sociedade de economia política francesa, de 1881 a 1909. Em seu livro de 1899 The Society of Tomorrow , ele propôs um sistema federativo de segurança coletiva, e reiterou seu apoio a competição das agências privadas de defesa.

O túmulo de Molinari está em Paris no cemitério Père Lachaise.

Citações Gustave de Molinari

„War has been the necessary and inevitable consequence of the establishment of a monopoly on security.“

— Gustave de Molinari
Context: Everywhere, when societies originate, we see the strongest, most warlike races seizing the exclusive government of the society. Everywhere we see these races seizing a monopoly on security within certain more or less extensive boundaries, depending on their number and strength.And, this monopoly being, by its very nature, extraordinarily profitable, everywhere we see the races invested with the monopoly on security devoting themselves to bitter struggles, in order to add to the extent of their market, the number of their forced consumers, and hence the amount of their gains.War has been the necessary and inevitable consequence of the establishment of a monopoly on security.Another inevitable consequence has been that this monopoly has engendered all other monopolies. p. 34-35

„War has been the necessary and inevitable consequence of the establishment of a monopoly on security.“

— Gustave de Molinari
Context: Everywhere, when societies originate, we see the strongest, most warlike races seizing the exclusive government of the society. Everywhere we see these races seizing a monopoly on security within certain more or less extensive boundaries, depending on their number and strength.And, this monopoly being, by its very nature, extraordinarily profitable, everywhere we see the races invested with the monopoly on security devoting themselves to bitter struggles, in order to add to the extent of their market, the number of their forced consumers, and hence the amount of their gains.War has been the necessary and inevitable consequence of the establishment of a monopoly on security.Another inevitable consequence has been that this monopoly has engendered all other monopolies. p. 34-35

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„This form of the organization of production has been named communism.“

— Gustave de Molinari
Context: If the roused and insurgent consumers secure the means of production of the salt industry, in all probability they will confiscate this industry for their own profit, and their first thought will be, not to relegate it to free competition, but rather to exploit it, in common, for their own account. They will then name a director or a directive committee to operate the saltworks, to whom they will allocate the funds necessary to defray the costs of salt production. Then, since the experience of the past will have made them suspicious and distrustful, since they will be afraid that the director named by them will seize production for his own benefit, and simply reconstitute by open or hidden means the old monopoly for his own profit, they will elect delegates, representatives entrusted with appropriating the funds necessary for production, with watching over their use, and with making sure that the salt produced is equally distributed to those entitled to it. The production of salt will be organized in this manner.This form of the organization of production has been named communism.When this organization is applied to a single commodity, the communism is said to be partial.When it is applied to all commodities, the communism is said to be complete.But whether communism is partial or complete, political economy is no more tolerant of it than it is of monopoly, of which it is merely an extension. p. 31

„What special reason is there that the production of security cannot be relegated to free competition?“

— Gustave de Molinari
Context: But why should there be an exception relative to security? What special reason is there that the production of security cannot be relegated to free competition? Why should it be subjected to a different principle and organized according to a different system? p. 24

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