Frases de Ernest Henry Shackleton

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Ernest Henry Shackleton

Data de nascimento: 15. Fevereiro 1874
Data de falecimento: 5. Janeiro 1922

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Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton CVO OBE FRSG foi um explorador polar que liderou três expedições britânicas à Antárctida, e uma das principais figuras do período conhecido como Idade Heroica da Exploração da Antártida.

Nascido no Condado de Kildare, na Irlanda, Shackleton e a sua família anglo-irlandesa mudaram-se para Sydenham, uma zona dos subúrbios de Londres, quando ele tinha dez anos de idade. Sua primeira experiência nas regiões polares foi como terceiro-oficial na Expedição Discovery liderada pelo capitão Robert Falcon Scott, em 1901–04, durante a qual foi enviado para casa mais cedo devido a problemas com escorbuto. Determinado a dar a volta a este insucesso pessoal, regressou à Antárctida em 1907 à frente da Expedição Nimrod. Em Janeiro de 1909, ele e mais três companheiros efectuaram uma marcha para sul que estabeleceria uma nova marca Farthest South - latitude 88° 23′ S, a 180 km do Polo Sul. Por esta conquista, Shackleton recebeu o título de cavaleiro pelo rei Eduardo VII quando regressou a casa.

Depois da corrida ao Polo Sul ter terminado em Dezembro de 1911, com a conquista de Roald Amundsen, Shackleton virou a sua atenção para aquele que ele considerava ser o último grande objectivo da exploração antárctica: atravessar o continente de mar a mar, passando pelo polo. Para prosseguir com este projecto, Shackleton preparou a Expedição Transantártica Imperial . A expedição não correu bem, com o navio, Endurance, a ficar preso no gelo e, posteriormente, a ser lentamente esmagado mesmo antes da tripulação conseguir desembarcar. Seguiu-se uma série de explorações, e um salvamento in-extremis sem, no entanto, perdas humanas, que daria o estatuto de herói a Shackleton, embora não tivesse sido imediatamente claro. Em 1921, regressou à Antárctida, na Expedição Shackleton–Rowett, com a intenção de levar a cabo um programa científico. Antes mesmo de a expedição ter começado os seus trabalhos de pesquisa, Shackleton morreria de ataque cardíaco enquanto o seu navio, Quest, estava ancorado na Geórgia do Sul. A pedido da sua esposa, foi enterrado ali.

Fora das expedições, a vida de Shackleton era, geralmente, agitada e insatisfeita. Na sua busca por soluções para o seu bem-estar e segurança, criou vários negócios, mas nenhum teve sucesso. Seus assuntos financeiros eram habitualmente confusos; quando morreu, estava significativamente endividado. Após sua morte, foi elogiado pela imprensa, mas acabou por ser, em larga medida, esquecido, enquanto a reputação do seu rival Scott foi mantida por muitas décadas. No século XX, Shackleton foi "redescoberto", tonando-se uma figura cultuada, um modelo de liderança que, em circunstâncias extremas, mantinha a coesão na sua equipa numa história de sobrevivência, descrita pela historiadora polar Stephanie Barczewski como "incrível".

Suas qualidades de liderança chamaram a atenção no início do século XXI, principalmente devido ao sucesso obtido nas operações de salvamento da Expedição Transantáctica Imperial. Seu carácter é resumido na última frase do livro Shackleton's Boat Journey, de F. A. Worsley, capitão do Endurance como "As suas características mais marcantes são o seu cuidado e atenção para com o bem-estar de todos os seus homens."

Citações Ernest Henry Shackleton

„I have been thinking much of our prospects.“

— Ernest Shackleton
Context: I have been thinking much of our prospects. The appearance of Clarence Island after our long drift seems, somehow, to convey an ultimatum. The island is the last outpost of the south and our final chance of a landing-place. Beyond it lies the broad Atlantic. Our little boats may be compelled any day now to sail unsheltered over the open sea with a thousand leagues of ocean separating them from the land to the north and east. It seems vital that we shall land on Clarence Island or its neighbour, Elephant Island. The latter island has an attraction for us, although as far as I know nobody has ever landed there. Its name suggests the presence of the plump and succulent sea-elephant. We have an increasing desire in any case to get firm ground under our feet. The floe has been a good friend to us, but it is reaching the end of its journey, and it is liable at any time now to break up and fling us into the unplumbed sea. Ch. 8 : Escape From The Ice

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„At the bottom of the fall we were able to stand again on dry land.“

— Ernest Shackleton
Context: At the bottom of the fall we were able to stand again on dry land. The rope could not be recovered. We had flung down the adze from the top of the fall and also the logbook and the cooker wrapped in one of our blouses. That was all, except our wet clothes, that we brought out of the Antarctic, which we had entered a year and a half before with well-found ship, full equipment, and high hopes. That was all of tangible things; but in memories we were rich. We had pierced the veneer of outside things. We had "suffered, starved and triumphed, groveled down yet grasped at glory, grown bigger in the bigness of the whole. We had seen God in His splendours, heard the text that Nature renders." We had reached the naked soul of man. Ch 10 : Across South Georgia; in this extract, Shackleton was paraphrasing the poem "The Call of the Wild" by Robert Service, published in 1907.

„The difficulties of the journey lay behind us.“

— Ernest Shackleton
Context: The difficulties of the journey lay behind us. We tried to straighten ourselves up a bit, for the thought that there might be women at the station made us painfully conscious of our uncivilized appearance. Our beards were long and our hair was matted. We were unwashed and the garments that we had worn for nearly a year without a change were tattered and stained. Three more unpleasant-looking ruffians could hardly have been imagined. Worsley produced several safety-pins from some corner of his garments and effected some temporary repairs that really emphasized his general disrepair. Down we hurried, and when quite close to the station we met two small boys ten or twelve years of age. I asked these lads where the manager's house was situated. They did not answer. They gave us one look — a comprehensive look that did not need to be repeated. Then they ran from us as fast as their legs would carry them. We reached the outskirts of the station and passed through the " digesting-house," which was dark inside. Emerging at the other end, we met an old man, who started as if he had seen the Devil himself and gave us no time to ask any question. He hurried away. Ch 10 : Across South Georgia

„We had "suffered, starved and triumphed, groveled down yet grasped at glory, grown bigger in the bigness of the whole. We had seen God in His splendours, heard the text that Nature renders." We had reached the naked soul of man.“

— Ernest Shackleton
Context: At the bottom of the fall we were able to stand again on dry land. The rope could not be recovered. We had flung down the adze from the top of the fall and also the logbook and the cooker wrapped in one of our blouses. That was all, except our wet clothes, that we brought out of the Antarctic, which we had entered a year and a half before with well-found ship, full equipment, and high hopes. That was all of tangible things; but in memories we were rich. We had pierced the veneer of outside things. We had "suffered, starved and triumphed, groveled down yet grasped at glory, grown bigger in the bigness of the whole. We had seen God in His splendours, heard the text that Nature renders." We had reached the naked soul of man. Ch 10 : Across South Georgia; in this extract, Shackleton was paraphrasing the poem "The Call of the Wild" by Robert Service, published in 1907.

„Difficulties are just things to overcome after all.“

— Ernest Shackleton
Quoted in [https://books.google.cl/books?id=U6MNkTbRwtwC&pg=PT250&lpg=PT250&dq=Difficulties+are+just+things+to+overcome+after+all&source=bl&ots=3gWt7QcL43&sig=y5CzkBvxAdWC7MlWA3eP1eNkpDs&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Difficulties%20are%20just%20things%20to%20overcome%20after%20all&f=false Shackleton (2013) by Roland Huntford]

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„Optimism is true moral courage.“

— Ernest Shackleton
Quoted in South with Shackleton (1949) by L. D. A. Hussey; also in [https://books.google.com/books?id=RflKAAAAYAAJ&q=%22Optimism+is+true+moral+courage%22&dq=%22Optimism+is+true+moral+courage%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=uPISVYCTK8_loAT_kYDIBw&ved=0CNABEOgBMCA The National Geographic Magazine (1998), Vol. 194, p. 90]

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