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Donald Judd

Data de nascimento: 3. Junho 1928
Data de falecimento: 12. Fevereiro 1994

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Donald Clarence Judd foi um pintor e artista plástico minimalista, norte-americano.

Pintor norte-americano, Donald Judd nasceu em 1928, em Excelsior Springs , nos Estados Unidos da América. Frequentou a escola de arte Art Students League e a Columbia University, ambas em Nova Iorque. Donald Judd procura superar o carácter representativo, ilusório e simbólico da pintura e dedica-se exclusivamente à escultura. Interessa-lhe a tridimensionalidade da escultura e a relação que os objetos estabelecem com o espaço e com o solo. Nos seus trabalhos, que resultam de uma radical simplificação das formas, dos materiais e das cores, o artista pretende acentuar as qualidades físicas e plásticas, sem imitar ou expressar nada para além da realidade física e sensível das formas. Esta redução expressiva e formal é acompanhada pela quase eliminação do contacto direto do artista na produção das peças que muitas vezes eram inteiramente produzidas em fábricas. Os materiais que mais utiliza são o contraplacado, o ferro, o alumínio e a madeira, muitas vezes pintados.

Um dos seus trabalhos mais conhecidos, a série de esculturas que são designadas por "Pilhas", resultam da repetição vertical de caixas retangulares, ao longo de uma parede. Apresentam uma das ideias de composição recorrentes nas obras de Judd: a serialidade, a combinatória e a variação de figuras simples.

Para além de esculturas, Donald Judd desenhou algumas peças de mobiliário.

Morreu em 1994, em Nova Iorque.

Citações Donald Judd

„The art of a chair is not its resemblance to art, but is partly its reasonableness, usefulness and scale as a chair.“

—  Donald Judd
Context: The art of a chair is not its resemblance to art, but is partly its reasonableness, usefulness and scale as a chair. These are proportion, which is visible reasonableness. The art in art is partly the assertion of someone's interest regardless of other considerations. A work of art exists as itself; a chair exists as a chair itself. And the idea of a chair isn't a chair. p. 7; Quoted in: " Furniture http://www.juddfoundation.org/furniture/judd-furniture" at juddfoundation.org, 2014

„A painting by Newman is finally no simpler than one by Cezanne.“

—  Donald Judd
Context: A work needs only to be interesting. Most works finally have one quality. In earlier art the complexity was displayed and built the quality. In recent painting the complexity was in the format and the few main shapes, which had been made according to various interests and problems. A painting by Newman is finally no simpler than one by Cezanne. In the three-dimensional work the whole thing is made according to complex purposes, and these are not scattered but asserted by one form. It isn't necessary for a work to have a lot of things to look at, to compare, to analyze one by one, to contemplate. The thing as a whole, its quality as a whole, is what is interesting. The main things are alone and are more intense, clear and powerful. p. 77. Partly quoted in: Washington Gallery of Modern Art (Washington, D.C.), ‎Barbara Rose (1967) New aesthetic: Exhibition May 6-June 25, 1967. p. 45

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„Most art is fragile and some should be placed and never moved again.“

—  Donald Judd
Context: It takes a great deal of time and thought to install work carefully. This should not always be thrown away. Most art is fragile and some should be placed and never moved again. Some work is too large, complex and expensive to move. Somewhere a portion of contemporary art has to exist as an example of what the art and its context were meant to be. Donald Judd (1987) Complete writings, 1975-1986. p. 111

„I think most of the art now is involved with a denial of any kind of absolute morality, or general morality.“

—  Donald Judd
Context: I think most of the art now is involved with a denial of any kind of absolute morality, or general morality. I think most of us in one way or another are involved in ideas of a fairly loose world, however it's expressed, whether obviously as in Chamberlain or just accidentally, or, oh, like Newman.

„If a chair or a building is not functional,“

—  Donald Judd
Context: Eighteen years ago someone asked me to design a coffee table. I thought that a work of mine which was essentially a rectangular volume with the upper surface recessed could be altered. This debased the work and produced a bad table which I later threw away. The configuration and the scale of art cannot be transposed into furniture and architecture. The intent of art is different from that of the latter, which must be functional. If a chair or a building is not functional, if it appears to be only art, it is ridiculous... A work of art exists as itself; a chair exists as a chair itself. p. 7; Lead paragraph; as cited in: Richard Padovan. Towards Universality: Le Corbusier, Mies and De Stijl, (2013), p. 82

„A work needs only to be interesting.“

—  Donald Judd
Context: A work needs only to be interesting. Most works finally have one quality. In earlier art the complexity was displayed and built the quality. In recent painting the complexity was in the format and the few main shapes, which had been made according to various interests and problems. A painting by Newman is finally no simpler than one by Cezanne. In the three-dimensional work the whole thing is made according to complex purposes, and these are not scattered but asserted by one form. It isn't necessary for a work to have a lot of things to look at, to compare, to analyze one by one, to contemplate. The thing as a whole, its quality as a whole, is what is interesting. The main things are alone and are more intense, clear and powerful. p. 77. Partly quoted in: Washington Gallery of Modern Art (Washington, D.C.), ‎Barbara Rose (1967) New aesthetic: Exhibition May 6-June 25, 1967. p. 45

„Any combining, mixing, adding, diluting, exploiting, vulgarizing, or popularizing of abstract art deprives art of its essence and depraves the artist's artistic consciousness. Art is free, but it is not a free-for-all.“

—  Donald Judd
Context: Any combining, mixing, adding, diluting, exploiting, vulgarizing, or popularizing of abstract art deprives art of its essence and depraves the artist's artistic consciousness. Art is free, but it is not a free-for-all. The one struggle in art is the struggle of artists against artists, of artist against artist, of the artist-as-artist within and against the artist-as- man, -animal, or -vegetable. Artists who claim their artwork comes from nature, life, reality, earth or heaven, as 'mirrors of the soul' or 'reflections of conditions' or 'instruments of the universe', who cook up 'new images of man' - figures and 'nature-in-abstraction' - pictures, are subjectively and objectively, rascals or rustics. Donald Judd, in: American Dialog, Vol. 1-5, (1964), p. ix

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„I object very much when my work is said to not be political, because my feelings about the social system are in there somewhere. The idea is to have it all in there together—you can’t pull it out.“

—  Donald Judd
In: Flash Art, Nr. 132-134, (1987), p. 36: Cited in: " ‘Donald Judd: Stacks’ at Mnuchin Gallery http://galleristny.com/2013/10/donald-judd-stacks-at-mnuchin-gallery/" by Andrew Russeth at galleristny.com, 10/01/13.

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„Everything sculpture has, my work doesn’t.“

—  Donald Judd
Donald Judd (1967). quoted in: Joseph Kosuth, (1969), " Art after Philosophy http://www.ubu.com/papers/kosuth_philosophy.html"

„The main qualifications to the lesser position of painting is that advances in art are certainly not always formal ones.“

—  Donald Judd
Donald Judd (1963), quoted in: Joseph Kosuth, (1969), " Art after Philosophy http://www.ubu.com/papers/kosuth_philosophy.html"

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