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Daniel Webster

Data de nascimento: 18. Janeiro 1782
Data de falecimento: 25. Outubro 1852

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Daniel Webster foi um político estadunidense e senador por Massachusetts durante o período que antecedeu a Guerra Civil. Inicialmente, ganhou destaque regional por meio de sua defesa dos interesses marítimos da Nova Inglaterra. Os pontos de vista cada vez mais nacionalista de Webster, e sua eficácia como um orador, fez dele um dos mais famosos e influentes líderes do Partido Whig do Segundo Sistema Partidário dos Estados Unidos . Ele foi um dos conservadores mais proeminentes do país, e a oposição liderada por Andrew Jackson e o Partido Democrata. Foi um defensor da modernização, o sistema bancário e a indústria, mas não foi uma pessoa comum que compôs a base inimiga da Democracia Jacksoniana. "Ele foi um elitista integralmente, e revelava isso", diz o biógrafo Remini. Durante seus 40 anos na política nacional, Webster serviu na Câmara dos Representantes por 10 anos , no Senado por 19 anos , e foi nomeado Secretário de Estado por três presidentes.

Webster participou de várias ocasiões importantes na Suprema Corte, estabelecendo precedentes constitucionais que fortaleceram a autoridade do governo federal. Como Secretário de Estado, negociou o Tratado Webster-Ashburton, cuja definiu a fronteira permanente entre o leste dos Estados Unidos e o Canadá. No Senado, Webster foi uma figura chave na instituição dos "dias dourados". Webster foi considerado o representante do Norte no trio conhecido como o "Grande Triunvirato", junto dos amigos Henry Clay do Oeste e John C. Calhoun do Sul . Em 1830, sua resposta ao senador Robert Y. Hayne em um debate foi considerado "o discurso mais eloquente apresentado no Congresso".

Tal como acontece com o seu companheiro do Partido Whig, Henry Clay, Webster queria ver a União preservada e a Guerra Civil evitada. Ambos trabalharam em compromissos para evitar que o regionalismo causasse uma guerra entre os estados do Norte e o Sul. Webster tentou três vezes sem sucesso ser eleito presidente dos Estados Unidos. Em 1957, uma Comissão do Senado escolheu Webster como um dos cinco maiores senadores do país com Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Robert La Follette, e Robert Taft.

Citações Daniel Webster

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„God grants liberty only to those who love it, and are always ready to guard and defend it.“

— Daniel Webster
Speech (3 June 1834); reported in Edward Everett, ed., The Works of Daniel Webster (1851), volume iv, page 47

„If the true spark of religious and civil liberty be kindled, it will burn.“

— Daniel Webster
Context: If the true spark of religious and civil liberty be kindled, it will burn. Human agency cannot extinguish it. Like the earth's central fire, it may be smothered for a time; the ocean may overwhelm it; mountains may press it down; but its inherent and unconquerable force will heave both the ocean and the land, and at some time or other, in some place or other, the volcano will break out and flame up to heaven.

„Standing armies are the oppressive instruments for governing the people, in the hands of hereditary and arbitrary monarchs.“

— Daniel Webster
Context: Standing armies are the oppressive instruments for governing the people, in the hands of hereditary and arbitrary monarchs. A military republic, a government founded on mock elections and supported only by the sword, is a movement indeed, but a retrograde and disastrous movement, from the regular and old-fashioned monarchical systems. If men would enjoy the blessings of republican government, they must govern themselves by reason, by mutual counsel and consultation, by a sense and feeling of general interest, and by the acquiescence of the minority in the will of the majority, properly expressed; and, above all, the military must be kept, according to the language of our Bill of Rights, in strict subordination to the civil authority.

„We wish that this column, rising towards heaven among the pointed spires of so many temples dedicated to God, may contribute also to produce, in all minds, a pious feeling of dependence and gratitude.“

— Daniel Webster
Context: We wish that this column, rising towards heaven among the pointed spires of so many temples dedicated to God, may contribute also to produce, in all minds, a pious feeling of dependence and gratitude. We wish, finally, that the last object to the sight of him who leaves his native shore, and the first to gladden his who revisits it, may be something which shall remind him of the liberty and the glory of his country. Let it rise! let it rise, till it meet the sun in his coming; let the earliest light of the morning gild it, and the parting day linger and play on its summit! p. 62

„In a day of peace, let us advance the arts of peace and the works of peace.“

— Daniel Webster
Context: Our proper business is improvement. Let our age be the age of improvement. In a day of peace, let us advance the arts of peace and the works of peace. Let us develop the resources of our land, call forth its powers, build up its institutions, promote all its great interests, and see whether we also, in our day and generation, may not perform something worthy to be remembered. The last sentence of this quote is incised in marble on the wall of the United States House of Representatives chamber, directly behind the Speaker's chair (with the word "develop" spelled with a final "e").

„Mind is the great lever of all things; human thought is the process by which human ends are ultimately answered;“

— Daniel Webster
Context: Mind is the great lever of all things; human thought is the process by which human ends are ultimately answered; and the diffusion of knowledge, so astonishing in the last half-century, has rendered innumerable minds, variously gifted by nature, competent to be competitors or fellow-workers on the theatre of intellectual operation. p. 71

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„Territories were acquired by fire and sword. Cities were destroyed by fire and sword. Hundreds of thousands of human beings fell by fire and sword. Even conversion to Christianity was attempted by fire and sword.“

— Daniel Webster
Context: Spain stooped on South America, like a vulture on its prey. Every thing was force. Territories were acquired by fire and sword. Cities were destroyed by fire and sword. Hundreds of thousands of human beings fell by fire and sword. Even conversion to Christianity was attempted by fire and sword.

„When tillage begins, other arts follow. The farmers, therefore, are the founders of human civilization.“

— Daniel Webster
Context: Let us never forget that the cultivation of the earth is the most important labor of man. Man may be civilized, in some degree, without great progress in manufactures and with little commerce with his distant neighbors. But without the cultivation of the earth, he is, in all countries, a savage. Until he gives up the chase, and fixes himself in some place and seeks a living from the earth, he is a roaming barbarian. When tillage begins, other arts follow. The farmers, therefore, are the founders of human civilization. p. 457

„A sense of duty pursues us ever. It is omnipresent, like the Deity.“

— Daniel Webster
Context: A sense of duty pursues us ever. It is omnipresent, like the Deity. If we take to ourselves the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, duty performed or duty violated is still with us, for our happiness or our misery. If we say the darkness shall cover us, in the darkness as in the light our obligations are yet with us.

„Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!“

— Daniel Webster
Context: When my eyes shall be turned to behold for the last time the sun in heaven, may I not see him shining on the broken and dishonored fragments of a once glorious Union; on States dissevered, discordant, belligerent; on a land rent with civil feuds, or drenched, it may be, in fraternal blood! Let their last feeble and lingering glance rather behold the glorious ensign of the republic, now known and honored throughout the earth, still full high advanced, its arms and trophies streaming in the original lustre, not a stripe erased or polluted, nor a single star obscured, bearing for its motto, no such miserable interrogatory as 'What is all this worth?' nor those words of delusion and folly, 'Liberty first and Union afterward,'; but everywhere, spread over all the characters of living light, blazing on all its ample folds, as they float over the sea and over the land, and in every wind under the whole heavens, that other sentiment, dear to every true American heart, -- Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!

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„As there was no liberty in Spain, how could liberty be transmitted to Spanish colonies?“

— Daniel Webster
Context: From the time of its discovery, the Spanish government pushed forward its settlements in America, not only with vigor, but with eagerness.... The robbery and destruction of the native race was the achievement of standing armies, in the right of the king, and by his authority, fighting in his name, for the aggrandizement of his power and the extension of his prerogatives, with military ideas under arbitrary maxims, — a portion of that dreadful instrumentality by which a perfect despotism governs a people. As there was no liberty in Spain, how could liberty be transmitted to Spanish colonies?

„I have entire confidence in the improvements to our husbandry, and the other great advantages, which would accrue from judicious rotation of products.“

— Daniel Webster
Context: Is it practicable, on the soil and in the climate of Massachusetts, to pursue a succession of crops? I cannot question it; and I have entire confidence in the improvements to our husbandry, and the other great advantages, which would accrue from judicious rotation of products. The capacities of the soil of Massachusetts are undoubted. One hundred bushels of corn to an acre have been repeatedly produced, and other crops in like abundance. But this will not effect the proper ends of a judicious and profitable agriculture, unless we can so manage our husbandry that, by a judicious and proper succession of the crops, land will not only be restored after an exhausting crop, but gradually enriched by cultivation.

„America has furnished to the world the character of Washington! And if our American institutions had done nothing else, that alone would have entitled them to the respect of mankind.“

— Daniel Webster
Context: America has furnished to Europe proof of the fact, that popular institutions, founded on equality and the principle of representation, are capable of maintaining governments, able to secure the rights of person, property, and reputation. America has proved that it is practicable to elevate the mass of mankind, — that portion which in Europe is called the laboring, or lower class, — to raise them to self-respect, to make them competent to act a part in the great right and great duty of self-government; and she has proved that this may be done by education and the diffusion of knowledge. America has furnished to the world the character of Washington! And if our American institutions had done nothing else, that alone would have entitled them to the respect of mankind. p. 105

„Let our object be, our country, our whole country, and nothing but our country.“

— Daniel Webster
Context: Let our object be, our country, our whole country, and nothing but our country. And, by the blessing of God, may that country itself become a vast and splendid monument, not of oppression and terror, but of Wisdom, of Peace, and of Liberty, upon which the world may gaze with admiration for ever! p. 78

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