Frases de Catarina II da Rússia

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Catarina II da Rússia

Data de nascimento: 21. Abril 1729
Data de falecimento: 6. Novembro 1796
Outros nomes:Kateřina II. Ruská,Екатерина II Великая,Katharina II., die Große

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Catarina II , conhecida como Catarina, a Grande, foi a Imperatriz da Rússia de 1762 até sua morte. Nascida como princesa Sofia Frederica Augusta de Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, era a filha mais velha de Cristiano Augusto, Príncipe de Anhalt-Zerbst, e sua esposa Joana Isabel de Holstein-Gottorp. Sofia se converteu para a Igreja Ortodoxa Russa, assumiu o nome de Catarina Alexeievna e se casou com o grão-duque Pedro Feodorovich, nascido príncipe de Holstein-Gottorp, em 1745. Seu marido ascendeu ao trono russo em janeiro de 1762 como Pedro III e ela organizou um golpe de estado que o tirou do trono em julho, com Pedro morrendo alguns dias depois supostamente assassinado.

Durante o seu reinado, o Império Russo se, melhorou a sua administração e continuou a modernizar-se. O reinado de Catarina revitalizou a Rússia, que cresceu com ainda mais força e tornou conhecida como uma das maiores potências europeias. Os seus sucessos dentro da complexa política externa e as suas represálias por vezes brutas aos movimentos revolucionários complementaram a sua caótica vida privada. Causava escândalo frequentemente, dada a sua tendência para relações que espalhavam rumores por todas as cortes europeias.

Catarina subiu ao poder supostamente após uma conspiração por ela mesma elaborada que depôs o seu marido, o czar Pedro III, e o seu reinado foi o apogeu da nobreza russa. Pedro III, sob pressão da mesma nobreza, tinha já aumentado a autoridade dos grandes proprietários de terra nos seus mujique e servos. Apesar dos deveres impostos nos nobres pelo primeiro modernizador proeminente da Rússia, o czar Pedro I, e apesar das amizades de Catarina com os intelectuais do iluminismo na Europa Ocidental , a imperatriz não considerava prático melhorar as condições de vida dos seus súbditos mais pobres que continuavam a ser ostracizados por conscrição militar. As distinções entre os direitos dos camponeses nos estados votchine e pomestie desapareceram virtualmente na lei e na prática durante o seu reinado.

Em 1785, Catarina conferiu à nobreza a Carta Régia da Nobreza, aumentando ainda mais o poder dos senhores de terra. Nobres em cada distrito elegiam um "marechal da nobreza" que falava em seu nome à monarca sobre problemas que os afetavam, em especial os problemas econômicos.

Citações Catarina II da Rússia

„To tempt, and to be tempted, are things very nearly allied“

— Catherine the Great
Context: To tempt, and to be tempted, are things very nearly allied, and, in spite of the finest maxims of morality impressed upon the mind, whenever feeling has anything to do in the matter, no sooner is it excited than we have already gone vastly farther than we are aware of, and I have yet to learn how it is possible to prevent its being excited. Flight alone is, perhaps, the only remedy; but there are cases and circumstances in which flight becomes impossible, for how is it possible to fly, shun, or turn one's back in the midst of a court? The very attempt would give rise to remarks. Now, if you do not fly, there is nothing, it seems to me, so difficult as to escape from that which is essentially agreeable. All that can be said in opposition to it will appear but a prudery quite out of harmony with the natural instincts of the human heart; besides, no one holds his heart in his hand, tightening or relaxing his grasp of it at pleasure. <!-- Appleton &Co., 1850 p. 280

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„The Laws ought to be so framed, as to secure the Safety of every Citizen as much as possible.“

— Catherine the Great
Context: The Laws ought to be so framed, as to secure the Safety of every Citizen as much as possible.<!-- Item 33

„Equality requires Institutions so well adapted, as to prevent the Rich from oppressing those who are not so wealthy as themselves“

— Catherine the Great
Context: The Equality of the Citizens consists in this; that they should all be subject to the same Laws. This Equality requires Institutions so well adapted, as to prevent the Rich from oppressing those who are not so wealthy as themselves, and converting all the Charges and Employments intrusted to them as Magistrates only, to their own private Emolument.... <!-- Items 34 - 35

„The Usage of Torture is contrary to all the Dictates of Nature and Reason; even Mankind itself cries out against it, and demands loudly the total Abolition of it.“

— Catherine the Great
Context: The Usage of Torture is contrary to all the Dictates of Nature and Reason; even Mankind itself cries out against it, and demands loudly the total Abolition of it. <!-- Item 123

„The Grand Duke appeared to rejoice at the arrival of my mother and myself. I was in my fifteenth year. During the first ten days he paid me much attention. Even then and in that short time, I saw and understood that he did not care much for the nation that he was destined to rule, and that he clung to Lutheranism, did not like his entourage, and was very childish.“

— Catherine the Great
Context: The Grand Duke appeared to rejoice at the arrival of my mother and myself. I was in my fifteenth year. During the first ten days he paid me much attention. Even then and in that short time, I saw and understood that he did not care much for the nation that he was destined to rule, and that he clung to Lutheranism, did not like his entourage, and was very childish. I remained silent and listened, and this gained me his trust. I remember him telling me that among other things, what pleased him most about me was that I was his second cousin, and that because I was related to him, he could speak to me with an open heart. Then he told me that he was in love with one of the Empress’s maids of honor, who had been dismissed from court because of the misfortune of her mother, one Madame Lopukhina, who had been exiled to Siberia, that he would have liked to marry her, but that he was resigned to marry me because his aunt desired it. I listened with a blush to these family confidences, thanking him for his ready trust, but deep in my heart I was astonished by his imprudence and lack of judgment in many matters.

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„A great wind is blowing, and that gives you either imagination or a headache.“

— Catherine the Great
As quoted in Daughters of Eve (1930) by Gamaliel Bradford, p. 192

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„Power without a nation's confidence is nothing.“

— Catherine the Great
As quoted in And I Quote : The Definitive Collection of Quotes, Sayings, and Jokes for the Contemporary Speechmaker (1992) by Ashton Applewhite, Tripp Evans, and Andrew Frothingham, p. 278

„Your wit makes others witty.“

— Catherine the Great
Letter to Voltaire, as quoted in Short Sayings of Great Men : With Historical and Explanatory Notes (1882) by Samuel Arthur Bent, and Hoyt's New Cyclopedia of Practical Quotations (1922) revised and enlarged by Kate Loise Roberts

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