Frases de Bernardo de Claraval

Bernardo de Claraval foto
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Bernardo de Claraval

Data de nascimento: 1090
Data de falecimento: 20. Agosto 1153
Outros nomes:Sv. Bernard Z Clairvaux,Sv. Bernard,San Bernardo di Chiaravalle

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Bernardo de Claraval , O.Cist, foi um abade francês e o principal responsável por reformar a Ordem de Cister, na qual entrou logo depois da morte de sua mãe. Foi o fundador da Abadia de Claraval , na Diocese de Langres.

Em 1128, Bernardo participou do Concílio de Troyes, que delineou a regra monástica que guiaria os Cavaleiros Templários e que rapidamente tornou-se o ideal de nobreza utilizado no mundo cristão. Depois da morte do papa Honório II em 1130, Bernardo foi instrumental para reconciliar a Igreja durante o chamado "cisma papal de 1130", que só terminaria definitivamente com a morte do antipapa Anacleto II em 1138.

No ano seguinte, Bernardo ajudou a organizar o Segundo Concílio de Latrão. Em 1141, Inocêncio convocou o Concílio de Sens para tratar da denúncia de Bernardo contra Pedro Abelardo. Com bastante experiência em curar cismas na Igreja, Bernardo foi em seguida recrutado para ajudar no combate às heresias que grassavam no sul da França.

No Oriente Médio, depois da derrota cristã no cerco de Edessa, o papa encarregou Bernardo de pregar a Segunda Cruzada, cujo fracasso seria depois considerado parcialmente culpa sua.

Bernardo morreu aos 63 anos depois de passar quarenta enclausurado. Foi o primeiro cisterciense no calendário de santos, tendo sido canonizado por Alexandre III em 18 de janeiro de 1174. Em 1830, Pio VIII proclamou-o Doutor da Igreja.

Entre suas obras estão a regra monástica da Ordem dos Templários, o "Tratado do Amor de Deus" e o "Comentário ao Cântico dos Cânticos". É também o compositor ou redator do hino "Ave Maris Stella" e da invocação " Ó clemente, ó piedosa, ó doce Virgem Maria" da oração "Salve Rainha" .

Citações Bernardo de Claraval

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„It’s not as if grace did one half of the work and free choice the other; each does the whole work, in its own peculiar contribution.“

— Bernard of Clairvaux
Context: It’s not as if grace did one half of the work and free choice the other; each does the whole work, in its own peculiar contribution. Grace does the whole work, and so does free choice – with this one qualification: That whereas the whole is done in free choice, so is the whole done of grace. On Grace & Free Choice, chap 14.(de Gratia Et Libero Arbitrio), Daniel O'Donovan, trans., Introduction, Bernard McGinn, Cistercian Publications, 1988, p. 37. [https://books.google.com/books?id=ODcqAAAAYAAJ&q=%22not+as+if+grace+did+one+half+of+the+work+and+free+choice+the+other%22&dq=%22not+as+if+grace+did+one+half+of+the+work+and+free+choice+the+other%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjT7I76jK_TAhUFNiYKHZrCB3gQ6AEIODAE] (Note: Fr. Harry J. McSorley, C.S.P. Commenting on this teaching of Bernard, states: "We are indebted to Bernard of Clairvaux … for the clarification that grace and free will are not related as partial causes - which would be a false synergism - but as total causes of the act of justification, each on its own proper plane. Bernard maintains the Catholic-Augustinian tradition by insisting that man's natural freedom (liberum arbitrium) remains even after the fall. It is a wretched, but nonetheless integral free will. This natural freedom of the will, possessed by the just and sinners alike, enables us to will, but not to will what is good. It is grace alone that gives us good will." Luther, Right or Wrong, (1969), Newman Press / Augsburg Publishing House, p. 133 [https://books.google.com/books?id=KaRAAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA133&dq=%22for+the+clarification+that+grace+and+free+will+are+not+related+as+partial+causes%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjX5fjGjK_TAhUKRSYKHdmfBCsQ6AEIIjAA#v=onepage&q=%22for%20the%20clarification%20that%20grace%20and%20free%20will%20are%20not%20related%20as%20partial%20causes%22&f=false]

„Human reason is snatching everything to itself, leaving nothing for faith.“

— Bernard of Clairvaux
Context: The faith of simplicity is mocked, the secrets of Christ profaned, questions on the highest things are impertinently asked, the Fathers scorned because they were disposed to conciliate rather than solve such problems. Human reason is snatching everything to itself, leaving nothing for faith. It falls upon things which are beyond it... desecrates sacred things more than clarifies them. It does not unlock mysteries and symbols, but tears them asunder; it makes nought of everything to which it cannot gain access and disdains to believe all such things. Reported in Walter Nigg, The Heretics: Heresy Through the Ages (1962) (who cites Adolph Hausrath 1895 as a source)

„To learn in order to know is scandalous curiosity.“

— Bernard of Clairvaux
Context: To learn in order to know is scandalous curiosity. (Translation from Etienne Gilson, The Mystical Theology of St. Bernard) Then you have some people who wish to know for the sake of knowing, and that is scandalous curiosity. (Translation from J. Van Herwaarden, Between Saint James and Erasmus: Studies in Late-Medieval Religious Life) Sermones in Cantica XXXVI, Migne PL 183, col. 968-969

„They ridicule us for baptizing infants, praying for the dead, and asking the prayers of the saints.“

— Bernard of Clairvaux
Context: Look at those detractors. Look at those dogs. They ridicule us for baptizing infants, praying for the dead, and asking the prayers of the saints. They lose no time in cutting Christ off from all kinds of people to both sexes, young and old, living and dead. They put infants outside the sphere of grace because they are too young to receive it, and those who are full grown because they find difficulty in preserving chastity. They deprive the dead of the help of the living, and rob the living of the prayers of the saints because they have died. God forbid! The Lord will not forsake his people who are as the sands of the sea, nor will he who redeemed all be content with a few, and those heretics.... These New Heretics, Sermon 66 on The Song of Songs. [http://www.pathsoflove.com/bernard/songofsongs/sermon66.html]

„My Beloved, look on me;
Turn me wholly unto Thee;
"Be thou whole," say openly:
"I forgive thee all."“

— Bernard of Clairvaux
Context: Prostrate, see Thy cross I grasp, And Thy pierced feet I clasp; Gracious Jesus, spurn me not; On me, with compassion fraught, Let Thy glances fall. Thy cross of agony, My Beloved, look on me; Turn me wholly unto Thee; "Be thou whole," say openly: "I forgive thee all." Reported in Josiah Hotchkiss Gilbert, Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895), p. 398

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„To reach this state is to become deified. As a drop of water poured into wine loses itself, and takes the color and savor of wine; or as a bar of iron, heated red-hot, becomes like fire itself, forgetting its own nature; or as the air, radiant with sun-beams, seems not so much to be illuminated as to be light itself; so in the saints all human affections melt away by some unspeakable transmutation into the will of God. For how could God be all in all, if anything merely human remained in man? The substance will endure, but in another beauty, a higher power, a greater glory.“

— Bernard of Clairvaux
Context: Seeing that the Scripture saith, God has made all for His own glory (Isa. 43.7), surely His creatures ought to conform themselves, as much as they can, to His will. In Him should all our affections center, so that in all things we should seek only to do His will, not to please ourselves. And real happiness will come, not in gratifying our desires or in gaining transient pleasures, but in accomplishing God’s will for us: even as we pray every day: ‘Thy will be done in earth as it is in heaven’ (Matt. 6.10). O chaste and holy love! O sweet and gracious affection! O pure and cleansed purpose, thoroughly washed and purged from any admixture of selfishness, and sweetened by contact with the divine will! To reach this state is to become deified. As a drop of water poured into wine loses itself, and takes the color and savor of wine; or as a bar of iron, heated red-hot, becomes like fire itself, forgetting its own nature; or as the air, radiant with sun-beams, seems not so much to be illuminated as to be light itself; so in the saints all human affections melt away by some unspeakable transmutation into the will of God. For how could God be all in all, if anything merely human remained in man? The substance will endure, but in another beauty, a higher power, a greater glory. When will that be? Who will see, who possess it? ‘When shall I come to appear before the presence of God?’ (Ps. 42.2). ‘My heart hath talked of Thee, Seek ye My face: Thy face, Lord, will I seek’ (Ps. 27.8). Lord, thinkest Thou that I, even I shall see Thy holy temple? From, On Loving of God, Paul Halsall trans., Ch. 10

„Among us on the earth there is His memory; but in the Kingdom of heaven His very Presence. That Presence is the joy of those who have already attained to beatitude; the memory is the comfort of us who are still wayfarers, journeying towards the Fatherland“

— Bernard of Clairvaux
Context: Among us on the earth there is His memory; but in the Kingdom of heaven His very Presence. That Presence is the joy of those who have already attained to beatitude; the memory is the comfort of us who are still wayfarers, journeying towards the Fatherland. From, On Loving of God, Paul Halsall trans., Ch. 3

„They deprive the dead of the help of the living, and rob the living of the prayers of the saints because they have died“

— Bernard of Clairvaux
Context: Look at those detractors. Look at those dogs. They ridicule us for baptizing infants, praying for the dead, and asking the prayers of the saints. They lose no time in cutting Christ off from all kinds of people to both sexes, young and old, living and dead. They put infants outside the sphere of grace because they are too young to receive it, and those who are full grown because they find difficulty in preserving chastity. They deprive the dead of the help of the living, and rob the living of the prayers of the saints because they have died. God forbid! The Lord will not forsake his people who are as the sands of the sea, nor will he who redeemed all be content with a few, and those heretics.... These New Heretics, Sermon 66 on The Song of Songs. [http://www.pathsoflove.com/bernard/songofsongs/sermon66.html]

„I would count him blessed and holy to whom such rapture has been vouchsafed in this mortal life, for even an instant to lose thyself,
as if thou wert emptied and lost and swallowed up in God, is no human love; it is celestial“

— Bernard of Clairvaux
Context: I would count him blessed and holy to whom such rapture has been vouchsafed in this mortal life, for even an instant to lose thyself, as if thou wert emptied and lost and swallowed up in God, is no human love; it is celestial. But if sometimes a poor mortal feels that heavenly joy for a rapturous moment, then this wretched life envies his happiness, the malice of daily trifles disturbs him, this body of death weighs him down, the needs of the flesh are imperative, the weakness of corruption fails him, and above all brotherly love calls him back to duty. Alas! that voice summons him to re-enter his own round of existence; and he must ever cry out lamentably, ‘O Lord, I am oppressed: undertake for me’ (Isa. 38.14); and again, ‘O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death?’ (Rom. 7.24)

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„What the eye doesn't see, the heart doesn't grieve.“

— Bernard of Clairvaux
Context: It is commonly said: What the eye doesn't see, the heart doesn't grieve. In Festo Omnium Sanctorum, Sermo 5, sect. 5; translation from Scottish Notes and Queries, 1st series, vol. 7, p. 59

„I have freed my soul.“

— Bernard of Clairvaux
Letter to Abbot Suger, Epistles no. 371 (c. 1147)

„I, for one, shall speak about those obstinate Greeks, who are with us and against us, united in faith and divided in peace, though in truth their faith may stray from the straight path.“

— Bernard of Clairvaux
[http://www.binetti.ru/bernardus/10.shtml De Consideratione] (1149-1152), lib. III (1152), c. I; Book of Considerations, part III, ch. I "Greeks" refers to the (Eastern) Orthodox Church.

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