Frases de Bernard Lewis
Data de nascimento: 31. Maio 1916
Bernard Lewis foi um académico britânico especialista em história do Islão e na interação entre o Islão e o Ocidente. De origem judaica, Lewis é professor emérito da cátedra Cleveland E. Dodge de Estudos do Próximo Oriente da Universidade de Princeton.
Lewis licenciou-se pela Faculdade de Estudos Orientais e Africanos da Universidade de Londres , fez pós-graduação na Universidade de Paris, regressou em 1938 para a Universidade de Londres como professor assistente de História Islâmica, novamente na Faculdade de Estudos Orientais e Africanos. Lewis ensinou ali até 1974, quando aceitou uma posição na Universidade de Princeton. Em 1986 aposentou-se formalmente, apesar de ainda manter ali uma posição como professor emérito, como mencionado acima.
No seguimento dos ataques terroristas de 11 de Setembro de 2001, o interesse pela obra de Lewis explodiu, em especial o seu ensaio de 1990 "As raízes da raiva muçulmana". Lewis é também conhecido pela sua discordância com muitas das teses de Edward Said, da Universidade de Columbia.
Bernard Lewis escreveu mais de vinte livros e numerosos artigos. Entre os seus mais recentes livros encontram-se dois escritos no seguimento dos ataques terroristas do 11 de Setembro:
A crise do Islão
O que correu mal?
Bernard Lewis morreu em 19 de maio de 2018, aos 101 anos.
Citações Bernard Lewis
„The Iranian revolution was a real revolution, not just a coup d'etat or a putsch or whatever. It was a genuine revolution in the sense that the French and the Russian revolutions were revolutions. It brought a massive change, social, economic, ideological not just a change of regime. Like for the French and Russian revolutions in their day, Khomeini had had a tremendous impact everywhere they had a shared universe of discourse, that is to say, the Muslim world. Just as the French and Russian revolutions in their day, and for some time after, had such an impact, so did the Iranian revolution, and it was not limited to the Shi'a world.“
„In the 19th century you had two important events in Europe: the unification of Italy and the unification of Germany, and both of these had a tremendous impact in the Arab world. They saw in this, a model for what they should be able to do, and they tried for a long time to do it. Nasserism is probably the final phase of that movement and, as you know, it failed. Now all the Arab states are independent but no union of Arab states has ever worked. They always fall apart through internal dissension.“
„Ultimately, the struggle of the fundamentalists is against two enemies, secularism and modernism. The war against secularism is conscious and explicit, and there is by now a whole literature denouncing secularism as an evil neo-pagan force in the modern world and attributing it variously to the Jews, the West, and the United States. The war against modernity is for the most part neither conscious nor explicit, and is directed against the whole process of change that has taken place in the Islamic world in the past century or more and has transformed the political, economic, social, and even cultural structures of Muslim countries. Islamic fundamentalism has given an aim and a form to the otherwise aimless and formless resentment and anger of the Muslim masses at the forces that have devalued their traditional values and loyalties and, in the final analysis, robbed them of their beliefs, their aspirations, their dignity, and to an increasing extent even their livelihood.“
„The current fascination among Muslims with the history of the Crusades, the vast literature on the subject, both academic and popular, and the repeated inferences drawn from the final extinction of the Crusading principalities throw some light on attitudes in this matter. Islam from its inception is a religion of power, and in the Muslim world view it is right and proper that power should be wielded by Muslims and Muslims alone. Others may receive the tolerance, even the benevolence, of the Muslim state, provided that they clearly recognize Muslim supremacy. That Muslims should rule over non-Muslims is right and normal. That non-Muslims should rule over Muslims is an offense against the laws of God and nature, and this is true whether in Kashmir, Palestine, Lebanon, or Cyprus. Here again, it must be recalled that Islam is not conceived as a religion in the limited Western sense but as a community, a loyalty, and a way of life—and that the Islamic community is still recovering from the traumatic era when Muslim governments and empires were overthrown and Muslim peoples forcibly subjected to alien, infidel rule.“
„We think of the defeat and collapse of the Soviet Union as a Western victory in the Cold War, and some of us credit President Reagan more particularly with that victory. For Osama bin Laden and his followers, this was a Muslim victory in the jihad. And if one looks at what actually happened, this is not an implausible interpretation. It was, after all, the Taliban in Afghanistan that drove the Red Army to defeat and collapse. And, as he put it, "We have now dealt successfully with the more deadly, the more dangerous of the two infidel powers. Dealing with the soft, pampered, and degenerate Americans will be easy."“
„Muslim fighters are commanded not to kill women, children, or the aged unless they attack first; not to torture or otherwise ill-treat prisoners; to give fair warning of the opening of hostilities or their resumption after a truce; and to honor agreements.... At no time did the classical jurists offer any approval or legitimacy to what we nowadays call terrorism. Nor indeed is there any evidence of the use of terrorism as it is practiced nowadays.“
— Bernard Lewis