Frases de Augustus De Morgan

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Augustus De Morgan

Data de nascimento: 27. Junho 1806
Data de falecimento: 18. Março 1871

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Augustus De Morgan foi um matemático e lógico britânico. Formulou as Leis de De Morgan e foi o primeiro a introduzir o termo e tornar rigorosa a ideia da indução matemática.

Augustus De Morgan foi educado no Trinity College, em Cambridge, e em 1828 tornou-se professor de matemática na então recém-criada universidade, em Londres, cargo que ocupou até 1866, com exceção de um período de cinco anos . Foi o primeiro presidente da London Mathematical Society, fundada em 1866.

Como professor não tinha rivais e nenhum tópico era insignificante demais para sua cuidadosa atenção. Um de seus primeiros trabalhos, Elementos de aritmética, de 1831, distingui-se pelo tratamento filosófico das ideias de número e magnitude. Além disso, contribuiu para o simbolismo matemático propondo o uso do solidus para a impressão das frações.

Sua maior contribuição para o conhecimento foi como reformador da lógica. Efetivamente, o renascimento dos estudos de lógica que começaram na primeira metade do século XIX deveu-se quase que inteiramente aos trabalhos de De Morgan e Boole, outro matemático inglês.

As realizações mais importantes de De Morgan foram o lançamento das fundações de relações e a preparação do caminho para o nascimento da lógica simbólica .

Citações Augustus De Morgan

„A finished or even a competent reasoner is not the work of nature alone… education develops faculties which would otherwise never have manifested their existence. It is, therefore, as necessary to learn to reason before we can expect to be able to reason, as it is to learn to swim or fence, in order to attain either of those arts. Now, something must be reasoned upon, it matters not much what it is, provided that it can be reasoned upon with certainty. The properties of mind or matter, or the study of languages, mathematics, or natural history may be chosen for this purpose. Now, of all these, it is desirable to choose the one… in which we can find out by other means, such as measurement and ocular demonstration of all sorts, whether the results are true or not.
.. Now the mathematics are peculiarly well adapted for this purpose, on the following grounds:—
1. Every term is distinctly explained, and has but one meaning, and it is rarely that two words are employed to mean the same thing.
2. The first principles are self-evident, and, though derived from observation, do not require more of it than has been made by children in general.
3. The demonstration is strictly logical, taking nothing for granted except the self-evident first principles, resting nothing upon probability, and entirely independent of authority and opinion.
4. When the conclusion is attained by reasoning, its truth or falsehood can be ascertained, in geometry by actual measurement, in algebra by common arithmetical calculation. This gives confidence, and is absolutely necessary, if… reason is not to be the instructor, but the pupil.
5. There are no words whose meanings are so much alike that the ideas which they stand for may be confounded.
… These are the principal grounds on which… the utility of mathematical studies may be shewn to rest, as a discipline for the reasoning powers. But the habits of mind which these studies have a tendency to form are valuable in the highest degree. The most important of all is the power of concentrating the ideas which a successful study of them increases where it did exist, and creates where it did not. A difficult position or a new method of passing from one proposition to another, arrests all the attention, and forces the united faculties to use their utmost exertions. The habit of mind thus formed soon extends itself to other pursuits, and is beneficially felt in all the business of life.<!--(1898) pp. 7-10“

—  Augustus De Morgan
Ch. I.

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„In order to see the difference which exists between… studies,—for instance, history and geometry, it will be useful to ask how we come by knowledge in each. Suppose, for example, we feel certain of a fact related in history… if we apply the notions of evidence which every-day experience justifies us in entertaining, we feel that the improbability of the contrary compels us to take refuge in the belief of the fact; and, if we allow that there is still a possibility of its falsehood, it is because this supposition does not involve absolute absurdity, but only extreme improbability.
In mathematics the case is wholly different… and the difference consists in this—that, instead of showing the contrary of the proposition asserted to be only improbable, it proves it at once to be absurd and impossible. This is done by showing that the contrary of the proposition which is asserted is in direct contradiction to some extremely evident fact, of the truth of which our eyes and hands convince us. In geometry, of the principles alluded to, those which are most commonly used are—
I. If a magnitude is divided into parts, the whole is greater than either of those parts.
II. Two straight lines cannot inclose a space.
III. Through one point only one straight line can be drawn, which never meets another straight line, or which is parallel to it.
It is on such principles as these that the whole of geometry is founded, and the demonstration of every proposition consists in proving the contrary of it to be inconsistent with one of these.“

—  Augustus De Morgan
Ch. I., (1898) pp. 2-5

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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