Frases de Aicha
Data de nascimento: 605
Data de falecimento: 13. Julho 678
Aixa binte Abu Baquir ou Aixa binte Abu-Becre , melhor conhecida somente como Aixa, Aiça ou Aissa, foi a terceira esposa do profeta Maomé .
Era filha de Abu Baquir, um dos primeiros apoiantes da mensagem religiosa de Maomé. Embora o seu casamento com Maomé tenha tido como principal objectivo cimentar laços políticos entre o seu pai e o profeta do islão, Aixa tornou-se a esposa preferida de Maomé. Segundo os hádices, o profeta se casou com Aixa quando ela tinha seis anos de idade , mas o casamento só teria sido consumado aos 9 anos de idade. Alguns historiadores modernos do Egito dizem que teria sido aos 18 anos de idade.Em 627, Aixa acompanhou Maomé numa expedição militar, mas perdeu-se do grupo quando este retornava a Medina. O motivo que a separou do grupo relaciona-se com um colar por si perdido que Aixa tentou procurar; quando o exército partiu ninguém reparou que Aixa não se achava na sua liteira por esta estar coberta com véus. Tendo notado que ficou para trás, Aixa esperou no deserto até que alguém a procurasse. No dia seguinte, Aixa foi encontrada por um homem que passava perto e que a levou junto do exército. Este episódio deu azo a relatos maliciosos que acusavam Aixa de adultério e que pediam a Maomé para que se divorciasse dela.
Quando Maomé morreu em 632, Aixa teria cerca de dezoito anos, tendo ainda vivido durante mais de quarenta anos. Aixa permaneceu pouco envolvida politicamente nos anos que se seguiram à morte do esposo, até a época do terceiro califa ortodoxo Otomão. Durante esta altura, Aixa foi uma das principais figuras que incentivaram a revolta contra este califa, tido como corrupto e favorecedor do nepotismo por alguns muçulmanos. Aixa abandonou a cidade de Medina antes do assassinato de Otomão em 656. A partir de então, Aixa dedicou-se a combater Ali, tendo liderado um exército contra este. Foi derrotada na Batalha do Dromedário e feita prisioneira. Acabou por ser libertada, tendo vivido em paz em Medina onde veio a falecer.A figura de Aixa serve de inspiração às feministas islâmicas, que consideram-na como um exemplo de que a mulher pode desempenhar um papel activo na vida religiosa islâmica. A maioria dos muçulmanos xiitas consideram-na uma conspiradora, tendo em vista o facto de ela ter enfrentado Ali, que os xiitas consideram ser o sucessor legítimo de Maomé na liderança da comunidade islâmica .
„The so-called Muslim women’s movement is predicated on the idea that Muslim men, not Islam, have been responsible for the suppression of women’s rights. For this reason, Muslim feminists throughout the world are advocating a return to the society Muhammad originally envisioned for his followers. Despite differences in culture, nationalities, and beliefs, these women believe that the lesson to be learned from Muhammad in Medina is that Islam is above all an egalitarian religion. Their Medina is a society in which Muhammad designated women like Umm Waraqa as spiritual guides for the Ummah; in which the Prophet himself was sometimes publicly rebuked by his wives; in which women prayed and fought alongside the men; in which women like Aisha and Umm Salamah acted not only as religious but also as political—and on at least one occasion military—leaders; and in which the call to gather for prayer, bellowed from the rooftop of Muhammad’s house, brought men and women together to kneel side by side and be blessed as a single undivided community.“
Reza Aslan as quoted in Joseph, Suad, ed. (2007). Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures: Volume 5 Practices, Interpretations and Representations. Brill Online. p. 227
„Narrated Aisha: I bought a cushion having pictures on it. When Allah’s Apostle saw it, he stopped at the gate and did not enter. I noticed the signs of hatred (for that) on his face! I said, "O Allah’s Apostle! I turn to Allah and His Apostle in repentance! What sin have I committed?" He said, "What about this cushion?" I said, ‘I bought it for you to sit on and recline on." Allah’s Apostle said, "The makers of these pictures will be punished (severely) on the Day of Resurrection and it will be said to them, ‘Make alive what you have created.’" He added, "Angels do not enter a house in which there are pictures."“
Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 72, Number 844
„Allah's Apostle said to me, "You were shown to me twice (in my dream) before I married you. I saw an angel carrying you in a silken piece of cloth, and I said to him, 'Uncover (her),' and behold, it was you. I said (to myself), 'If this is from Allah, then it must happen.' Then you were shown to me, the angel carrying you in a silken piece of cloth, and I said (to him), 'Uncover (her), and behold, it was you. I said (to myself), 'If this is from Allah, then it must happen.'“
Sahih Bukhari 9:87:140
„Narrated 'Aisha: I used to play with the dolls in the presence of the Prophet, and my girl friends also used to play with me. When Allah's Apostle used to enter (my dwelling place) they used to hide themselves, but the Prophet would call them to join and play with me. (The playing with the dolls and similar images is forbidden, but it was allowed for 'Aisha at that time, as she was a little girl, not yet reached the age of puberty.)“
Sahih Bukhari 8:73:151 Sahih Bukhari http://www.usc.edu/org/cmje/religious-texts/hadith/bukhari/073-sbt.php#008.073.151
„Her special knowledge of significant acts of prayer, ablution, and cleanliness performed by the Prophet Muhammad made her an especially valued source of ritually significant information for the Sunni Muslim community, who in all matters looked to the Prophet’s human example in the performance of their daily life.“
[Denise A. Spellberg, Politics, Gender, and the Islamic Past: The Legacy of 'A'isha Bint Abi Bakr, 1994, New York: Columbia University Press, 37]
„If the knowledge of 'Aishah were to be gathered up and compared to the knowledge of all the other wives of the Prophet and all other women, 'Aishah's knowledge would be greater.“
Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, (Al-Hakim, Al-Mustadrak, vol. 4, p. 11)
„Allah's Apostle said, "The superiority of 'Aisha over other women is like the superiority of Tharid to other meals."“
Narrated Anas bin Malik, in Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 57, Number 114
Collected by Ibn Abee Shaybah (13/360) Ibn Hajr graded this Athar as being Saheeh.
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„Narrated Aisha: The Prophet entered upon me while there was a curtain having pictures (of animals) in the house. His face got red with anger, and then he got hold of the curtain and tore it into pieces. The Prophet said, "Such people as paint these pictures will receive the severest punishment on the Day of Resurrection."“
Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 73, Number 130
„Al-Harith bin Hisham asked Allah’s Apostle O Allah’s Messenger How is the Divine Inspiration revealed to you? Allah’s Messenger replied, Sometimes it is like the ringing of a bell, this form of Inspiration is the hardest of all and then this state passes off after I have grasped what is inspired. Sometimes the Angel comes in the form of a man and talks to me and I grasp whatever he says. Aisha added: Verily I saw the Prophet being inspired Divinely on a very cold day and noticed the Sweat dropping from his forehead.“
Sahih Bukhari vol 1 book 1 hadith 2
„The Messenger of Allah said: ‘Ten things are connected to the Fitrah: trimming the moustache, letting the beard grow, using the tooth stick, rinsing out the nostrils with water, clipping the nails, washing the joints, plucking the armpit hairs, shaving the pubic hairs, washing the private parts with water. (One of the narrators) Zakariyya said: Musab said: I have forgotten the tenth thing, but it may have been rinsing out the mouth.“
Hadith 293 Sunan Ibn Majah
„Narrated 'Aisha: I asked the Prophet, "O Allah's Messenger! Should the women be asked for their consent to their marriage?" He said, "Yes." I said, "A virgin, if asked, feels shy and keeps quiet."“
He said, "Her silence means her consent."
Sahih Bukhari, 9:85:79 https://sunnah.com/bukhari/89/7